Table of Contents
Game Theory
Volume 2015, Article ID 570639, 20 pages
Review Article

Hypergame Theory: A Model for Conflict, Misperception, and Deception

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7765, USA

Received 24 May 2015; Accepted 9 July 2015

Academic Editor: Tonu Puu

Copyright © 2015 Nicholas S. Kovach et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


When dealing with conflicts, game theory and decision theory can be used to model the interactions of the decision-makers. To date, game theory and decision theory have received considerable modeling focus, while hypergame theory has not. A metagame, known as a hypergame, occurs when one player does not know or fully understand all the strategies of a game. Hypergame theory extends the advantages of game theory by allowing a player to outmaneuver an opponent and obtaining a more preferred outcome with a higher utility. The ability to outmaneuver an opponent occurs in the hypergame because the different views (perception or deception) of opponents are captured in the model, through the incorporation of information unknown to other players (misperception or intentional deception). The hypergame model more accurately provides solutions for complex theoretic modeling of conflicts than those modeled by game theory and excels where perception or information differences exist between players. This paper explores the current research in hypergame theory and presents a broad overview of the historical literature on hypergame theory.