Table of Contents
Hepatitis Research and Treatment
Volume 2010, Article ID 475746, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/475746
Review Article

Antiviral Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection after Liver Transplantation

Artificial Organ and Transplantation Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan

Received 21 May 2010; Revised 13 August 2010; Accepted 6 October 2010

Academic Editor: Tatehiro Kagawa

Copyright © 2010 Yasuhiko Sugawara et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Tamura and Y. Sugawara, “Treatment strategy for hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 111–123, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Lavanchy, “The global burden of hepatitis C,” Liver International, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. M. Lauer and B. D. Walker, “Hepatitis C virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 1, pp. 41–52, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Kiyosawa, T. Umemura, T. Ichijo et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent trends in Japan,” Gastroenterology, vol. 127, no. 5, supplement 1, pp. S17–S26, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. H. Hoofnagle and L. B. Seeff, “Peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 23, pp. 2444–2451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. P. Manns, H. Wedemeyer, and M. Cornberg, “Treating viral hepatitis C: efficacy, side effects, and complications,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1350–1359, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. H. Dale, P. Burns, M. McCutcheon, R. Hernandez-Alejandro, and P. J. Marotta, “Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C after liver and renal transplantation,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 265–267, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. V. Suneetha, I. Mederacke, A. Heim et al., “Spontaneous clearance of chronic hepatitis C after liver transplantation: are hepatitis C virus-specific T cell responses the clue?” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1225–1227, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Bhagat, J. A. Foont, E. R. Schiff, and A. Regev, “Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation in two patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 92–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. N. Samonakis, E. Cholongitas, C. K. Triantos et al., “Sustained, spontaneous disappearance of serum HCV-RNA under immunosuppression after liver transplantion for HCV cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1091–1093, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. L. Doughty, A. Zekry, J. D. Spencer, S. Turhan, D. Painter, and G. W. McCaughan, “Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection post-liver transplantation is associated with rapidly changing quasispecies: a single case report,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 648–653, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. H. Wiesner, M. Sorrell, F. Villamil et al., “Report of the first International Liver Transplantation Society expert panel consensus conference on liver transplantation and hepatitis C,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. S1–S9, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Berenguer, F. X. López-Labrador, and T. L. Wright, “Hepatitis C and liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 666–678, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Yilmaz, M. L. Shiffman, R. T. Stravitz et al., “A prospective evaluation of fibrosis progression in patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus following liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 975–983, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Berenguer, L. Ferrell, J. Watson et al., “HCV-related fibrosis progression following liver transplantation: increase in recent years,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 673–684, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. J. Thuluvath, K. L. Krok, D. L. Segev, and H. Y. Yoo, “Trends in post-liver transplant survival in patients with hepatitis C between 1991 and 2001 in the United States,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 719–724, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Samuel, X. Forns, M. Berenguer et al., “Report of the monothematic EASL conference on liver transplantation for viral hepatitis (Paris, France, January 12–14, 2006),” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 127–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. J. Mutimer, B. Gunson, J. Chen et al., “Impact of donor age and year of transplantation on graft and patient survival following liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus,” Transplantation, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. M. Forman, J. D. Lewis, J. A. Berlin, H. I. Feldman, and M. R. Lucey, “The association between hepatitis C infection and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 889–896, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. W. McCaughan, N. A. Shackel, S. I. Strasser, P. Dilworth, and P. Tang, “Minimal but significant improvement in survival for non-hepatitis C-related adult liver transplant patients beyond the one-year posttransplant mark,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 130–137, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. R. J. Firpi, V. Clark, C. Soldevila-Pico et al., “The natural history of hepatitis C cirrhosis after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1063–1071, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. F. Gallegos-Orozco, A. Yosephy, B. Noble et al., “Natural history of post-liver transplantation hepatitis C: a review of factors that may influence its course,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1872–1881, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Garcia-Retortillo, X. Forns, A. Feliu et al., “Hepatitis C virus kinetics during and immediately after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 680–687, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. J. Gane, B. G. Portmann, N. V. Naoumov et al., “Long-term outcome of hepatitis C infection after liver transplantation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 13, pp. 815–820, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Poynard, P. Bedossa, and P. Opolon, “Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9055, pp. 825–832, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Berenguer, M. Prieto, J. M. Rayón et al., “Natural history of clinically compensated hepatitis C virus-related graft cirrhosis after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 4, part 1, pp. 852–858, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Peveling-Oberhag, S. Zeuzem, and W. P. Hofmann, “Antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation,” Medical Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. G. W. McCaughan and A. Zekry, “Mechanisms of HCV reinfection and allograft damage after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 368–374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. U. P. Neumann, T. Berg, M. Bahra et al., “Fibrosis progression after liver transplantation in patients with recurrent hepatitis C,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 830–836, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Berenguer, M. Prieto, F. S. Juan et al., “Contribution of donor age to the recent decrease in patient survival among HCV-infected liver transplant recipients,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 202–210, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Roche and D. Samuel, “Risk factors for hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 14, supplement 1, pp. 89–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. N. A. Shackel, J. Jamias, W. Rahman et al., “Early high peak hepatitis C viral load levels independently predict hepatitis C-related liver failure post-liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 709–718, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. S. Belli, A. K. Burroughs, P. Burra et al., “Liver transplantation for HCV cirrhosis: Improved survival in recent years and increased severity of recurrent disease in female recipients: results of a long term retrospective study,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 733–740, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Berenguer, V. Aguilera, M. Prieto et al., “Worse recent efficacy of antiviral therapy in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C: impact of donor age and baseline cirrhosis,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 738–746, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Z. Meriden, K. A. Forde, T. L. Pasha et al., “Histologic predictors of fibrosis progression in liver allografts in patients with hepatitis C virus infection,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. B. J. Veldt, J. J. Poterucha, K. D. S. Watt et al., “Insulin resistance, serum adipokines and risk of fibrosis progression in patients transplanted for hepatitis C,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1406–1413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Sabharwal, A. Delgado-Borrego, and R. T. Chung, “Extrahepatic hepatitis C virus after transplantation: diabetes and renal dysfunction,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, supplement 1, pp. S51–S57, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. A. Hanouneh, A. E. Feldstein, A. J. McCullough et al., “The significance of metabolic syndrome in the setting of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1287–1293, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Madill, B. M. Arendt, E. Aghdassi et al., “Hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant micronutrients in hepatitis virus C liver recipients with and without disease recurrence,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 3800–3805, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Berenguer, A. Royuela, and J. Zamora, “Immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors with respect to the outcome of HCV recurrence after liver transplantation: results of a meta-analysis,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Marubashi, K. Dono, H. Nagano et al., “Steroid-free living donor liver transplantation in adults: impact on hepatitis C recurrence,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 904–913, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. L. Segev, S. M. Sozio, E. J. Shin et al., “Steroid avoidance in liver transplantation: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 512–525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Manousou, D. Samonakis, E. Cholongitas et al., “Outcome of recurrent hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation in a randomized trial of tacrolimus monotherapy versus triple therapy,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1783–1791, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. K. Moonka, D. Kim, A. Kapke, K. A. Brown, and A. Yoshida, “The influence of induction therapy on graft and patient survival in patients with and without hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 590–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Schvoerer, E. Soulier, C. Royer et al., “Early evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies after liver transplant for HCV-related disease,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 528–536, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. X. Fan and A. M. Di Bisceglie, “Diversification of hypervariable region 1 of hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 212–218, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. C. Lyra, X. Fan, D. M. Lang et al., “Evolution of hepatitis C viral quasispecies after liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1485–1493, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. L. Doughty, D. M. Painter, and G. W. McCaughan, “Post-transplant quasispecies pattern remains stable over time in patients with recurrent cholestatic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 126–134, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. A. Powers, R. M. Ribeiro, K. Patel et al., “Kinetics of hepatitis C virus reinfection after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 207–216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. D. Schiano, J. A. Gutierrez, J. L. Walewski et al., “Accelerated hepatitis C virus kinetics but similar survival rates in recipients of liver grafts from living versus deceased donors,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1420–1428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Garcia-Retortillo, X. Forns, J. M. Llovet et al., “Hepatitis C recurrence is more severe after living donor compared to cadaveric liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 699–707, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Massaguer, S. Ramírez, J. A. Carrión, P. González, J. M. Sánchez-Tapias, and X. Forns, “Evolution of the NS3 and NS5B regions of the hepatitis C virus during disease recurrence after liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2172–2179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. Sreekumar, A. Gonzalez-Koch, Y. Maor-Kendler et al., “Early identification of recipients with progressive histologic recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1125–1130, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. G. Ghany, D. B. Strader, D. L. Thomas, and L. B. Seeff, “Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1335–1374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. T. Everson, “Treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus on the waiting list,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. S90–S94, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. X. Forns, M. García-Retortillo, T. Serrano et al., “Antiviral therapy of patients with decompensated cirrhosis to prevent recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 389–396, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. A. Smallwood, R. Devine, C. Fasola, A. C. Stieber, and T. G. Heffron, “Does interferon use prior to liver transplant influence hepatitis C outcomes following transplantation?” Transplantation, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1795–1798, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. A. Carrión, E. Martínez-Bauer, G. Crespo et al., “Antiviral therapy increases the risk of bacterial infections in HCV-infected cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation: a retrospective study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 719–728, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Sugawara, M. Makuuchi, Y. Matsui et al., “Preemptive therapy for hepatitis C virus after living-donor liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1308–1311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. Kishi, Y. Sugawara, N. Akamatsu et al., “Splenectomy and preemptive interferon therapy for hepatitis C patients after living-donor liver transplantation,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 769–772, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Marzano, P. Lampertico, V. Mazzaferro et al., “Prophylaxis of hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation in carriers of lamivudine-resistant mutants,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 532–538, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Chalasani, C. Manzarbeitia, P. Ferenci et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2a for hepatitis C after liver transplantation: two randomized, controlled trials,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 289–298, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Kuo, V. Tan, B. Lan et al., “Long-term histological effects of preemptive antiviral therapy in liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C virus infection,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1491–1497, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Tamura, Y. Sugawara, N. Yamashiki, J. Kaneko, N. Kokudo, and M. Makuuchi, “Pre-emptive antiviral therapy in living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C: observation based on a single-center experience,” Transplant International, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 580–588, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. N. A. Terrault, “Prophylactic and preemptive therapies for hepatitis C virus-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. S95–S100, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. A. Sheiner, P. Boros, F. M. Klion et al., “The efficacy of prophylactic interferon alfa-2b in preventing recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 831–838, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. N. Singh, T. Gayowski, C. F. Wannstedt et al., “Interferon-α for prophylaxis of recurrent viral hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial,” Transplantation, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 82–86, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. V. Mazzaferro, A. Taggerb, M. Schiavo et al., “Prevention of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation with early interferon and ribavirin treatment,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 1355–1357, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. A. K. Shergill, M. Khalili, S. Straley et al., “Applicability, tolerability and efficacy of preemptive antiviral therapy in hepatitis C-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. J. Firpi, M. F. Abdelmalek, C. Soldevila-Pico et al., “One-year protocol liver biopsy can stratify fibrosis progression in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C infection,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1240–1247, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. I. A. Hanouneh, C. Miller, F. N. Aucejo, R. Lopez, M. K. Quinn, and N. N. Zein, “Recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: on-treatment prediction of response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. I. Fernández, J. C. Meneu, F. Colina et al., “Clinical and histological efficacy of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1805–1812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Berenguer, A. Palau, A. Fernandez et al., “Efficacy, predictors of response, and potential risks associated with antiviral therapy in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1067–1076, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Biselli, P. Andreone, A. Gramenzi et al., “Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for recurrent Hepatitis C infection after liver transplantation in naïve and non-responder patients on a stable immunosuppressive regimen,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. Oton, R. Barcena, S. Garcia-Garzon et al., “Pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the recurrence of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 in transplant patients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 3963–3964, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Mukherjee, “Pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 4403–4405, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. Castells, V. Vargas, H. Allende et al., “Combined treatment with pegylated interferon (α-2b) and ribavirin in the acute phase of hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplantation,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. H. Rodriguez-Luna, A. Khatib, P. Sharma et al., “Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C infection after liver transplantation with combination of pegylated interferon α2b and ribavirin: an open-label series,” Transplantation, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 190–194, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Dumortier, J.-Y. Scoazec, P. Chevallier, and O. Boillot, “Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a pilot study of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin combination,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 669–674, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Mukherjee, J. Rogge, L. Weaver, and D. F. Schafer, “Pilot study of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 3042–3044, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. Y. Ueda, Y. Takada, H. Marusawa, H. Egawa, S. Uemoto, and T. Chiba, “Individualized extension of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy for recurrent hepatitis C genotype 1b after living-donor liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 661–665, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. S. J. Hadziyannis, H. Sette Jr., T. R. Morgan et al., “Peginterferon-alpha-2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 140, no. 5, pp. 346–355, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. L. Davis, J. B. Wong, J. G. McHutchison, M. P. Manns, J. Harvey, and J. Albrecht, “Early virologic response to treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 645–652, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. G. McHutchison, M. Manns, K. Patel et al., “Adherence to combination therapy enhances sustained response in genotype-1-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 1061–1069, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. W. Fried, M. L. Shiffman, K. Rajender Reddy et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 13, pp. 975–982, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. P. Manns, J. G. McHutchison, S. C. Gordon et al., “Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferonalfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9286, pp. 958–965, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. C. Schmidt, M. Bahra, S. Bayraktar et al., “Antiviral treatment of patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation with pegylated interferon,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2063–2069, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Jain, R. Sharma, C. Ryan et al., “Response to antiviral therapy in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C viral infection: a single center experience,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 104–111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. S. Dinges, I. Morard, M. Heim et al., “Pegylated interferon-alpha2a/ribavirin treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. Cescon, G. L. Grazi, A. Cucchetti et al., “Predictors of sustained virological response after antiviral treatment for hepatitis C recurrence following liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 782–789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. B. Raziorrouh, M.-C. Jung, C. A. Schirren et al., “Antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: sustained virologic response is related to genotype 2/3 and response at week 12,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 778–783, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. Hörnfeldt, H. Gjertsen, and O. Weiland, “High adherence with a low initial ribavirin dose in combination with pegylated-IFN alpha-2a for treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 259–265, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. Samuel, T. Bizollon, C. Feray et al., “Interferon-α 2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a randomized study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 642–650, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. N. Selzner, E. L. Renner, M. Selzner et al., “Antiviral treatment of recurrent Hepatitis C after liver transplantation: predictors of response and long-term outcome,” Transplantation, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 1214–1221, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. T. Bizollon, P. Pradat, J.-Y. Mabrut et al., “Histological benefit of retreatment by pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus infection posttransplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 448–453, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. A. Carrión, M. Navasa, M. García-Retortillo et al., “Efficacy of antiviral therapy on hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: a randomized controlled study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1746–1756, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. F. Lodato, S. Berardi, A. Gramenzi et al., “Clinical trial: peg-interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of genotype-1 hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 450–457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. P. Sharma, J. A. Marrero, R. J. Fontana et al., “Sustained virologic response to therapy of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation is related to early virologic response and dose adherence,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1100–1108, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. E. Oton, R. Barcena, J. M. Moreno-Planas et al., “Hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: viral and histologic response to full-dose peg-interferon and ribavirin,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2348–2355, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. S. Wang, H. H. Ko, E. M. Yoshida, C. A. Marra, and K. Richardson, “Interferon-based combination anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C virus after liver transplantation: a review and quantitative analysis,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1586–1599, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. S. Yedibela, D. Schuppan, V. Müller et al., “Successful treatment of hepatitis C reinfection with interferon-α2b and ribavirin after liver transplantation. a long-term follow-up,” Liver International, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 717–722, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. P. Toniutto, C. Fabris, E. Fumo et al., “Pegylated versus standard interferon-α in antiviral regimens for post-transplant recurrent hepatitis C: comparison of tolerability and efficacy,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 577–582, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. S. Mukherjee, E. Lyden, T. M. McCashland, and D. F. Schafer, “Interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin for the treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: cohort study of 38 patients,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 198–203, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. A. S. Ross, A. K. Bhan, M. Pascual, M. Thiim, A. B. Cosimi, and R. T. Chung, “Pegylated interferon α-2b plus ribavirin in the treatment of post-liver transplant recurrent hepatitis C,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. E. Giostra, G. A. Kullak-Ublick, W. Keller et al., “Ribavirin/interferon-α sequential treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplant International, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 169–176, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. M. Berenguer, M. Prieto, A. Palau et al., “Recurrent hepatitis C genotype 1b following liver transplantation: treatment with combination interferon-ribavirin therapy,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1207–1212, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. Nair, S. Khan, G. Loss et al., “Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients: is there any histologic benefit?” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 354–359, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. A. O. Shakil, B. McGuire, J. Crippin et al., “A pilot study of interferon alfa and ribavirin combination in liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 1253–1258, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. K. V. Narayanan Menon, J. J. Poterucha, O. M. El-Amin et al., “Treatment of posttransplantation recurrence of hepatitis C with interferon and ribavirin: lessons on tolerability and efficacy,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 623–629, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. B. Lavezzo, A. Franchello, A. Smedile et al., “Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplants: efficacy of a six versus a twelve month course of interferon alfa 2b with ribavirin,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 247–252, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. J. Firpi, M. F. Abdelmalek, C. Soldevila-Pico et al., “Combination of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in liver transplant recipients with histological recurrent hepatitis C,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1000–1006, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. Dumortier, J. Y. Scoazec, F. Berger, and O. Boillot, “Recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation: follow-up and treatment,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 779–781, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. Targhetta, P. Burra, A. Popovic et al., “Natural α-IFN in HCV recurrence after liver transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 1457–1458, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. A. Kornberg, M. Hommann, A. Tannapfel et al., “Long-term combination of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence in liver transplant patients,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 350–355, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. E. De Vera, G. A. Smallwood, K. Rosado et al., “Interferon-α and ribavirin for the treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 678–686, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. Ahmad, S. F. Dodson, A. J. Demetris, J. J. Fung, and A. O. Shakil, “Recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a nonrandomized trial of interferon alfa alone versus interferon alfa and ribavirin,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 863–869, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. T. Bizollon, U. Palazzo, C. Ducerf et al., “Pilot study of the combination of interferon alfa and ribavirin as therapy of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 500–504, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. J. M. Moreno Planas, E. Rubio Gonzalez, E. Boullosa Graña et al., “Peginterferon and ribavirin in patients with HCV cirrhosis after liver transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 2207–2208, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. M. Babatin, L. Schindel, and K. W. Burak, “Pegylated-interferon alpha 2b and ribavirin for recurrent hepatities C after liver liver transplantation: from a Canadian experience to recommendations for therapy,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 359–365, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  120. G. W. Neff, M. Montalbano, C. B. O'Brien et al., “Treatment of established recurrent hepatitis C in liver-transplant recipients with pegylated interferon-alfa-2b and ribavirin therapy,” Transplantation, vol. 78, no. 9, pp. 1303–1307, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. M. Berenguer, “Systematic review of the treatment of established recurrent hepatitis C with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 274–287, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. W. C. Lee, T. J. Wu, H. S. Chou, C. F. Lee, K. M. Chan, and S. S. Cheng, “Flexible and individualized treatment to achieve sustained viral response for recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis. In press.
  123. T. Bizollon, P. Pradat, J.-Y. Mabrut et al., “Benefit of sustained virological response to combination therapy on graft survival of liver transplanted patients with recurrent chronic hepatitis C,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1909–1913, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. T. Bizollon, S. N. S. Ahmed, S. Radenne et al., “Long term histological improvement and clearance of intrahepatic hepatitis C virus RNA following sustained response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy in liver transplanted patients with hepatitis C virus recurrence,” Gut, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 283–287, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. M. Omata, H. Yoshida, J. Toyota et al., “A large-scale, multicentre, double-blind trial of ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 1747–1753, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. Berenguer, V. Aguilera, M. Prieto et al., “Delayed onset of severe hepatitis C-related liver damage following liver transplantation: a matter of concern?” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1152–1158, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. L. K. Schluger, P. A. Sheiner, S. N. Thung et al., “Severe recurrent cholestatic hepatitis C following orthotopic liver transplantation,” Hepatology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 971–976, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. D. V. Gopal and H. R. Rosen, “Duration of antiviral therapy for cholestatic HCV recurrence may need to be indefinite,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 348–353, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. Y. Takada, T. Ito, Y. Ueda et al., “Effects of double-filtration plasmapheresis combined with interferon plus ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after living donor liver transplantation,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 1044–1047, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. M. Taniguchi, H. Furukawa, T. Shimamura et al., “Impact of double-filtration plasmapheresis in combination with interferon and ribavirin in living donor liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C,” Transplantation, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 1747–1749, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. S. Marubashi, K. Dono, A. Miyamoto et al., “Liver transplantation for hepatitis C,” Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 382–392, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J.-M. Pawlotsky and R. G. Gish, “Future therapies for hepatitis C,” Antiviral Therapy, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 397–408, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. Pawlotsky, S. Chevaliez, and J. G. McHutchison, “The hepatitis C virus life cycle as a target for new antiviral therapies,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1979–1998, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. L. Lang, “Interim results presented at EASL from PROVE 1 clinical trial of investigational drug telaprevir in patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 2283–2284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. J. G. McHutchison, G. T. Everson, S. C. Gordon et al., “Telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin for chronic HCV genotype 1 infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 18, pp. 1827–1838, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. G. McHutchison, M. P. Manns, A. J. Muir et al., “Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 14, pp. 1292–1303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. C. Sarrazin, R. Rouzier, F. Wagner et al., “SCH 503034, a novel hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor, plus pegylated interferon alpha-2b for genotype 1 nonresponders,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 1270–1278, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. S. L. Bogen, W. Pan, S. Ruan et al., “Toward the back-up of Boceprevir (SCH 503034): discovery of new extended P4-capped ketoamide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease with improved potency and pharmacokinetic profiles,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 3679–3688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. I. Mederacke, H. Wedemeyer, and M. P. Manns, “Boceprevir, an NS3 serine protease inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, for the treatment of HCV infection,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. K. Berman and P. Y. Kwo, “Boceprevir, an NS3 protease inhibitor of HCV,” Clinics in Liver Disease, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 429–439, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus