Table 2: Studies on therapeutic vaccinations in the woodchuck model.

VaccinesApplicationAdjuvantsOutcomeReference

WHcAgintramuscularViral elimination in 1 of 6 animalsRoggendorf et al., 1995 [96]
WHsAg and Th-peptideintramuscularTh-peptideTransient anti-WHs antibody responseTwo woodchucks diedHervás-Stubbs et al., 1997 [120]
WHsAg and Th-peptideintramuscularTh-peptideNo induction of anti-WHs antibodiesDetectable T-cell responses to WHV proteinsHervás-Stubbs et al., 2001 [108]
WHsAg in combination with clevudine (L-FMAU)intramuscularalumReduction of serum viral loads and viral replication in liverInduction of anti-WHs and detection of T-cell responses to WHV proteinsDelayed occurrence of HCCMenne et al., 2000, 2002 [74, 109, 110]
WHsAgintramuscularmonophosphoryl lipid ANo reduction of serum viral load, Development of antibodies to the preS region of WHsAgLu et al., 2003 [121]
Plasmid DNA expressing WHsAg, WHcAg, and woodchuck IFN-γ in combination with lamivudineintramuscular Transient reduction of serum viral loadsLu et al., 2008 [112]
WHsAg/anti-WHs immunogenic complex and DNA vaccines in combination with lamivudineintramuscular Transient reduction of serum viral loadsTransient appearance of anti-WHs antibodies and WHcAg-specific T cell responseLu et al., 2008 [112]
Plasmid DNA encoding WHsAg and WHcAg in combination with entecavirintramuscular Transient reduction of serum viral loadsLu et al., [unpublished results]
Plasmid DNA encoding WHsAg and WHcAg in combination with protein WHsAg/WHcAg vaccine in combination with entecavirintramuscular