Table 2: Autoantibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

AutoantibodyMolecular targetPrognostic valueReference

Antiliver kidney microsomal (LKM1)Cytochrome 450 2D6Diagnostic for AIH type 2[27]

Anti-LKM3Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase7% of patients with AIH associated with viral hepatitis C[28]

Antismooth muscle antibodyActin and non-actin components (vimentin, Skeltin)Diagnostic marker for type 1 AIH

AntiactinPolymerized F-actin(1) Subset of smooth muscle antibodies
(2) Children: treatment dependence and progression to liver failure
(3) Adults: early onset and severe disease
(4) Severe clinical and histological disease if reactive to actin and α-actinin, anti-ss DNA antibodies can be seen as well.

Anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA)Sep (O-phosphoserine) tRNA: SEC(selenocysteine) tRNA synthase(1) High specificity, may be present when other markers are absent
(2) Predictor of relapse and treatment dependence
(3) Associated with DRB1 0301
(4) Higher frequency of death from liver failure.
[32, 33]

Antiliver cytosol type 1 (LC1)Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase(1) Present when other markers like ANA, SMA, LKM1 absent
(2) Early age of onset and concurrent immune disease
(3) Marked liver inflammation and rapid progression to cirrhosis
[34, 35]

Anti-asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)Asialoglycoprotein receptor(1) Correlate with histological activity[36]

Antibody to histone and double stranded DNA (dsDNA)Histone, dsDNA(1) Patients with anti-dsDNA fail corticosteroid treatment more frequently[37]

Anti-chromatinChromatin(1) Occur in association with ANA
(2) May define a subset of ANA positive patients that are treatment dependent
(3) Predictor of relapse after drug withdrawal
(4) Higher levels of globulin and IgG at presentation

Perinuclear antinuclear neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA)Peripheral nuclear membrane componentSeen in type 1 AIH may help in diagnosis if other tests are negative.[39]