Table of Contents
Hepatitis Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 429784, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/429784
Clinical Study

Prevalence of Occult Hepatitis C Virus in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorders

1Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12311, Egypt
2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt

Received 30 August 2012; Revised 2 November 2012; Accepted 14 November 2012

Academic Editor: Piero Luigi Almasio

Copyright © 2012 Samar Samir Youssef et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, “Hepatitis C-global prevalence (update),” The Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol. 74, pp. 425–427, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. Frank, M. K. Mohamed, G. T. Strickland et al., “The role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy in the spread of hepatitis C virus in Egypt,” Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9207, pp. 887–891, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Robertson, G. Myers, C. Howard et al., “Classification, nomenclature, and database development for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and related viruses: proposals for standardization,” Archives of Virology, vol. 143, no. 12, pp. 2493–2503, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Okuda, K. Hino, M. Korenaga, Y. Yamaguchi, Y. Katoh, and K. Okita, “Differences in hypervariable region 1 quasispecies of hepatitis C virus in human serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and liver,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 217–222, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. L. Zignego, M. De Carli, M. Monti et al., “Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Castillo, M. Pardo, J. Bartolomé et al., “Occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients in whom the etiology of persistently abnormal results of liver-function tests is unknow,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. M. López-Alcorocho, E. Rodríguez-Iñigo, I. Castillo et al., “The role of genomic and antigenomic HCV-RNA strands as predictive factors of response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1193–1201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Barril, I. Castillo, M. D. Arenas et al., “Occult hepatitis C virus infection among hemodialysis patients,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2288–2292, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. Franzin, D. G. Efremov, G. Pozzato, P. Tulissi, F. Batista, and O. R. Burrone, “Clonal B-cell expansions in peripheral blood of HCV-infected patients,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 548–552, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. Marcucci and A. Mele, “Hepatitis viruses and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: epidemiology, mechanisms of tumorigenesis, and therapeutic opportunities,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1792–1798, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. C. Gordon, “Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 157–168, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Idilman, A. Colantoni, N. De Maria, S. Alkan, S. Nand, and D. H. Van Thiel, “Lymphoproliferative disorders in chronic hepatitis C,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 302–309, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Dal Maso and S. Franceschi, “Hepatitis C virus and risk of lymphoma and other lymphoid neoplasms: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2078–2085, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Nieters, B. Kallinowski, P. Brennan et al., “Hepatitis C and risk of lymphoma: results of the European multicenter case-control study EPILYMPH,” Gastroenterology, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 1879–1886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. L. Zignego, C. Giannini, M. Monti, and L. Gragnani, “Hepatitis C virus lymphotropism: lessons from a decade of studies,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 39, supplement 1, pp. S38–S45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. H. Chen, L. T. Hsiao, T. J. Chiou et al., “High prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 475–480, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. M. El-Sayed, W. S. Mohamed, M. A. Nouh, M. M. Moneer, and H. A. El-Mahallawy, “Viral genomes and antigen detection of hepatitis B and C viruses in involved lymph nodes of Egyptian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients,” The Egyptian Journal of Immunology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 105–114, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Goldman, S. Ezzat, N. Mokhtar et al., “Viral and non-viral risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Egypt: heterogeneity by histological and immunological subtypes,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 981–987, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Gouda, O. Nada, S. Ezzat et al., “Immunohistochemical detection of hepatitis C virus (genotype 4) in B-cell NHL in an Egyptian population: correlation with serum HCV-RNA,” Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. K. El-Awady, S. S. Youssef, M. H. Omran, A. A. Tabll, W. T. El Garf, and A. M. Salem, “Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, article no. 91, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Idilman, Y. Bozkus, G. Seval et al., “Lymphoproliferative disorders in individuals with chronic hepatitis b and C in the Turkish population,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 974–980, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. N. Q. Pham, C. S. Coffin, and T. I. Michalak, “Occult hepatitis C virus infection: what does it mean?” Liver International, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 502–511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Goldman, S. Ezzat, N. Mokhtar et al., “Viral and non-viral risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Egypt: heterogeneity by histological and immunological subtypes,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 981–987, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Zaghloul and W. El-Sherbiny, “Detection of occult hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections from peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Immunological Investigations, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 284–291, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. De Marco, A. Gillio-Tos, V. Fiano et al., “Occult HCV infection: an unexpected finding in a population unselected for hepatic disease,” PloS One, vol. 4, no. 12, article no. e8128, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. N. Q. Pham, S. E. Mercer, and T. I. Michalak, “Chronic hepatitis C and persistent occult hepatitis C virus infection are characterized by distinct immune cell cytokine expression profiles,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 547–556, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Kondo, V. M. H. Sung, K. Machida, M. Liu, and M. M. C. Lai, “Hepatitis C virus infects T cells and affects interferon-γ signaling in T cell lines,” Virology, vol. 361, no. 1, pp. 161–173, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Bokharaei-Salim, H. Keyvani, S. H. R. Monavari et al., “Occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian patients with cryptogenic liver disease,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 989–995, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Saad, S. Zakaria, I. Ramzy et al., “Prevalence of occult hepatitis C in Egyptian patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Open Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 33–37, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. C. Ray, R. R. Arthur, A. Carella, J. Bukh, and D. L. Thomas, “Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis C virus throughout Egypt,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 698–707, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. Castillo, E. Rodríguez-Iñigo, J. M. López-Alcorocho, J. Bartolomé, M. Pardo, and V. Carreño, “Comparative study on the clinical and virological characteristics among patients with single occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), single occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV and HCV dual infection,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 236–241, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus