Table of Contents
Hepatitis Research and Treatment
Volume 2017, Article ID 2131627, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2131627
Research Article

Assessment of Immunization to Hepatitis B Vaccine among Children under Five Years in Rural Areas of Taiz, Yemen

1Microbiology and Immunology Departments, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Yemen
2Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Yemen
3Pediatrics Department, Al-Sabeen Maternity and Child Hospital, Sana’a, Yemen
4Virology and Serology Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Yemen
5Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University Zanesville, Zanesville, OH, USA
6National Center for Research, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence should be addressed to Fuad A. A. Alssamei; moc.oohay@yimasdauf

Received 18 November 2016; Accepted 22 January 2017; Published 6 March 2017

Academic Editor: Man-Fung Yuen

Copyright © 2017 Fuad A. A. Alssamei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. V. Chaudhary, R. Kumar, V. K. Agarwal, V. K. Joshi, and D. Sharma, “Evaluation of primary immunization coverage in an urban area of Bareilly city using cluster sampling technique,” National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 10–15, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. S. F. Lok and B. J. McMahon, “Chronic hepatitis B,” Hepatology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 507–539, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Demirjian and O. Levy, “Safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 36–46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Nath, J. Singh, S. Awasthi, V. Bhushan, V. Kumar, and S. Singh, “A study on determinants of immunization coverage among 12–23 months old children in urban slums of Lucknow district, India,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 598–606, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. WHO and UNICEF, Global Immunization Data, World Health Organization, Geneva‎, Switzerland, 2008, http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Global_Immunization_Data.pdf.
  6. E. A. Murad, S. M. Babiker, G. I. Gasim, D. A. Rayis, and I. Adam, “Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in pregnant women in Sana'a, Yemen,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 127–131, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Al-Shamahy, “Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk factors of HBV infection in a sample of healthy mothers and their infants in Sana'a, Yemen,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 464–466, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. A. Bajubair, A. A. Elrub, and G. Bather, “Hepatic viral infections in Yemen between 2000–2005,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 871–874, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. A. Sallam, Y. A. Raja'a, S. Bahaj et al., “Hepatitis B virus carrier rate, prevalence and susceptibility and impact of immunization program among households in the city of Taiz, Yemen,” Vaccine, vol. 30, no. 37, pp. 5564–5568, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Juszczyk, “Clinical course and consequences of hepatitis B infection,” Vaccine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. S23–S25, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y.-H. Ni, M.-H. Chang, L.-M. Huang et al., “Hepatitis B virus infection in children and adolescents in a hyperendemic area: 15 years after mass hepatitis B vaccination,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 135, no. 9, pp. 796–800, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Yazigi and W. F. Balistreri, “Viral hepatitis,” in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, R. M. Kliegman and W. W. E. Nelson, Eds., Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  13. H. A. Al-Shamahy, S. H. Hanash, I. A. Rabbad, N. M. Al-Madhaji, and S. M. Naser, “Hepatitis B vaccine coverage and the immune response in children under ten years old in Sana'a, Yemen,” Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 77–82, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. M. Al-Eryani, Child malnutrition in Yemen: the role of female education [M.S. thesis], Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2006.
  15. World Bank, Yemen Overview, 2015, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/yemen/overview.
  16. A. J. Roome, S. J. Walsh, M. L. Cartter, and J. L. Hadler, “Hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in connecticut public safety personnel,” JAMA, vol. 270, no. 24, pp. 2931–2934, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M.-H. Chang, “Impact of hepatitis B vaccination on hepatitis B disease and nucleic acid testing in high-prevalence populations,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. S45–S50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L.-C. Hsu, S.-R. Lin, H.-M. Hsu et al., “Ethnic differences in immune responses to hepatitis B vaccine,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 143, no. 7, pp. 718–724, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Alsamei, A. Elagib, N. Al-Sonboli, F. Alkumaim, N. Alsayaad, and A. Aldobibi, “Evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among malnourished children in Yemen,” Yemeni Journal for Medical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. T. A. Sallam, H. M. Alghshm, A. A. Ablohom et al., “Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among children in Yemen,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 281–284, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. A. Al-Rabeei, A. M. Dallak, and A. A. Al-Fosail, “Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen,” Indian Journal of Community Health, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 343–348, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  22. UNIECF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, UNICEF, New York, NY, USA, 2006, http://mics.unicef.org/surveys.
  23. A. D. Jack, A. J. Hall, N. Maine, M. Mendy, and H. C. Whittle, “What level of hepatitis B antibody is protective?” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 489–492, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. “Hepatitis B,” in Immunisation Against Infectious Disease: ‘The Green Book’, D. Salisbury, M. Ramsay, and K. Noakes, Eds., pp. 161–184, The Stationery Office, London, UK, 2006, http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthprotection.
  25. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), “A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Part II: immunization of adults,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 55, p. 16, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  26. A. M. N. Costa, G. L. Italien, M. E. Nita, and E. S. A. Araujo, “Cost-effectiveness of entecavir versus lamivudine for the suppression of viral replication in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 368–373, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Hu, T.-Y. Ho, and H. H. Lin, “Geographic and ethnic variations of long-term efficacy and immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccination in Hualien, a HBV hyperendemic area,” Vaccine, vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 4427–4432, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M.-A. Rey-Cuille, A. Seck, R. Njouom et al., “Low immune response to hepatitis B vaccine among children in Dakar, Senegal,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e38153, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. A. Losonsky, S. S. Wasserman, I. Stephens et al., “Hepatitis B vaccination of premature infants: a reassessment of current recommendations for delayed immunization,” Pediatrics, vol. 103, no. 2, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Guo and C.-Y. Hui, “Pilot-scale production and quality control of multiepitope hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine,” Journal of Southern Medical University, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 118–120, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. M. Merkel, S. Alexander, E. Zufall, J. D. Oliver, and Y. M. Huet-Hudson, “Essential role for estrogen in protection against Vibrio vulnificus-induced endotoxic shock,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 6119–6122, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Kahlke, C. Dohm, T. Mees, K. Brötzmann, S. Schreiber, and J. Schröder, “Early interleukin-10 treatment improves survival and enhances immune function only in males after hemorrhage and subsequent sepsis,” Shock, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 24–28, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. N. Fish, “The X-files in immunity: sex-based differences predispose immune responses,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 737–744, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. L. Klein, A. Jedlicka, and A. Pekosz, “The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 338–349, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. I. Marriott, K. L. Bost, and Y. M. Huet-Hudson, “Sexual dimorphism in expression of receptors for bacterial lipopolysaccharides in murine macrophages: a possible mechanism for gender-based differences in endotoxic shock susceptibility,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 12–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. A. Madani, “Trend in incidence of hepatitis B virus infection during a decade of universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination in Saudi Arabia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 278–283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Nardone, C. G. Anastassopoulou, H. Theeten et al., “A comparison of hepatitis B seroepidemiology in ten European countries,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 137, no. 7, pp. 961–969, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y.-H. Zhou, C. Wu, and H. Zhuang, “Vaccination against hepatitis B: the Chinese experience,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 98–102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. He, Y.-J. Ma, T.-Y. Zhou et al., “The serum anti-HBs level among children who received routine Hepatitis B vaccination during infancy in Mianyang City, China: a cross-sectional study,” Viral Immunology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Sansoni, R. Vescovini, F. Fagnoni et al., “The immune system in extreme longevity,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 61–65, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus