W. Y. Lau, C. K. Leow, K. L. Leung, Thomas W. T. Leung, Michael Chan, Simon C. H. Yu, "Cholangiographic Features in the Diagnosis and Management of Obstructive Icteric Type Hepatocellular Carcinoma", HPB Surgery, vol. 11, Article ID 079241, 8 pages, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1155/2000/79241
Cholangiographic Features in the Diagnosis and Management of Obstructive Icteric Type Hepatocellular Carcinoma
In 11 years and 3 months, 2037 patients with HCC were seen and 48 patients (2.4%) were diagnosed to have obstructive icteric type HCC. Five patients were terminally ill and were not investigated further. Forty three patients were initially investigated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) and classified as having obstructive icteric type 1, 2, or 3 HCC based on the cholangiographic findings. The obstruction in type 1 HCC was due to intraluminal tumour casts and/or tumour fragments obstructing the hepatic ductal confluence or common bile duct, while intraluminal blood clots, from haemobilia, filling the biliary tree was the cause in type 2 HCC. The pathology in type 3 HCC was extraluminal obstruction by extensive tumour encasement of the intra–hepatic biliary ductal system and/or extrinsic compression of the hepatic and common bile ducts by tumour(s) and/or malignant lymph nodes. At the initial ERC/PTC, 10 patients (5 resected, 50%) had obstructive icteric type 1 and 23 patients (0 resected) had obstructive icteric type 3 HCC. Of the 10 patients initially classified according to cholangiography to have obstructive icteric type 2 HCC, subsequent investigations revealed that 6 patients had type 1 HCC (4 resectable, 67%) and 4 patients had type 3 HCC (0 resectable). The classification of the obstructive icteric type HCC into types 1, 2, and 3, based on the initial cholangiographic appearances has simplified and rationalized our management strategy for this condition.
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