Table of Contents
HPB Surgery
Volume 2012, Article ID 454026, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/454026
Review Article

Surgical Options for Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases

Dan Setlacec Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Fundeni Street No. 258, 022328 Bucharest, Romania

Received 17 April 2012; Accepted 21 August 2012

Academic Editor: Luciano De Carlis

Copyright © 2012 Irinel Popescu and Sorin Tiberiu Alexandrescu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Choti, J. V. Sitzmann, M. F. Tiburi et al., “Trends in long-term survival following liver resection for hepatic colorectal metastases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 235, no. 6, pp. 759–766, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Popescu, M. Ionescu, S. Alexandrescu et al., “Surgical treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer,” Chirurgia, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Scheele and A. Altendorf-Hofmann, “Resection of colorectal liver metastases,” Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, vol. 384, no. 4, pp. 313–327, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Van den Eynde and A. Hendlisz, “Treatment of colorectal liver metastases: a review,” Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 56–62, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Charnsangavej, B. Clary, Y. Fong, A. Grothey, T. M. Pawlik, and M. A. Choti, “Selection of patients for resection of hepatic colorectal metastases: expert consensus statement,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1261–1268, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. M. Pawlik, R. D. Schulick, and M. A. Choti, “Expanding criteria for resectability of colorectal liver metastases,” Oncologist, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 51–64, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Capussotti, A. Muratore, A. Ferrero, G. C. Anselmetti, A. Corgnier, and D. Regge, “Extension of right portal vein embolization to segment IV portal branches,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 140, no. 11, pp. 1100–1103, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. De Baere, A. Roche, D. Elias, P. Lasser, C. Lagrange, and V. Bousson, “Preoperative portal vein embolization for extension of hepatectomy indications,” Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1386–1391, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. K. Abdalla, M. E. Hicks, and J. N. Vauthey, “Portal vein embolization: rationale, technique and future prospects,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 165–175, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Azoulay, D. Castaing, A. Smail et al., “Resection of nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after percutaneous portal vein embolization,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 231, no. 4, pp. 480–486, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Kianmanesh, O. Farges, E. K. Abdalla, A. Sauvanet, P. Ruszniewski, and J. Belghiti, “Right portal vein ligation: a new planned two-step all-surgical approach for complete resection of primary gastrointestinal tumors with multiple bilateral liver metastases,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 164–170, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Kubota, M. Makuuchi, K. Kusaka et al., “Measurement of liver volume and hepatic functional reserve as a guide to decision-making in resectional surgery for hepatic tumors,” Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1176–1181, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Minagawa, M. Makuuchi, G. Torzilli et al., “Extension of the frontiers of surgical indications in the treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: long-term results,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 231, no. 4, pp. 487–499, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Adam, V. Delvart, G. Pascal et al., “Rescue surgery for unresectable colorectal liver metastases downstaged by chemotherapy: a model to predict long-term survival,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 240, no. 4, pp. 644–658, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Jaeck, P. Bachellier, J. C. Weber, E. Oussoultzoglou, and M. Greget, “Progrs dans la chirurgie d'exrse des mtastases hpatiques des cancers colorectaux,” Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine, vol. 187, no. 5, pp. 863–876, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Ijichi, M. Makuuchi, H. Imamura, and T. Takayama, “Portal embolization relieves persistent jaundice after complete biliary drainage,” Surgery, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 116–118, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Uesaka, Y. Nimura, and M. Nagino, “Changes in hepatic lobar function after right portal vein embolization: an appraisal by biliary indocyanine green excretion,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 223, no. 1, pp. 77–83, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Kinoshita, K. Sakai, and K. Hirohashi, “Preoperative portal vein embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 803–808, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Makuuchi, B. L. Thai, K. Takayasu et al., “Preoperative portal embolization to increase safety of major hepatectomy for hilar bile duct carcinoma: a preliminary report,” Surgery, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 521–527, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. J. Lygidakis, L. Vlachos, S. Raptis et al., “New frontiers in liver surgery. Two-stage liver surgery for the management of advanced metastatic liver disease,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 46, no. 28, pp. 2216–2228, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Elias, J. F. Ouellet, T. De Baère, P. Lasser, and A. Roche, “Preoperative selective portal vein embolization before hepatectomy for liver metastases: long-term results and impact on survival,” Surgery, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 294–299, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Jaeck, P. Bachellier, H. Nakano et al., “One or two-stage hepatectomy combined with portal vein embolization for initially nonresectable colorectal liver metastases,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Furrer, Y. Tian, T. Pfammatter et al., “Selective portal vein embolization and ligation trigger different regenerative responses in the rat liver,” Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1615–1623, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Wilms, L. Mueller, C. Lenk et al., “Comparative study of portal vein embolization versus portal vein ligation for induction of hypertrophy of the future liver remnant using a mini-pig model,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 247, no. 5, pp. 825–834, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Aussilhou, M. Lesurtel, A. Sauvanet et al., “Right portal vein ligation is as efficient as portal vein embolization to induce hypertrophy of the left liver remnant,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 297–303, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Nagino, J. Kamiya, M. Kanai et al., “Right trisegment portal vein embolization for biliary tract carcinoma: technique and clinical utility,” Surgery, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Popescu, S. Alexandrescu, A. Croitoru, and M. Boros, “Strategies to convert to resectability the initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 56, no. 91-92, pp. 739–744, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. A. Schnitzbauer, S. A. Lang, H. Goessmann, S. Nadalin, J. Baumgart, S. A. Farkas et al., “Right portal vein ligation combined with in situ splitting induces rapid left lateral liver lobe hypertrophy enabling 2-staged extended right hepatic resection in small-for-size settings,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 405–414, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  29. S. E. De, F. A. Alvarez, and V. Ardiles, “How to avoid postoperative liver failure: a novel method,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 125–128, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Abulkhir, P. Limongelli, A. J. Healey et al., “Preoperative portal vein embolization for major liver resection: a meta-analysis,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 247, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Aussilhou, S. Dokmak, S. Faivre, V. Paradis, V. Vilgrain, and J. Belghiti, “Preoperative liver hypertrophy induced by portal flow occlusion before major hepatic resection for colorectal metastases can be impaired by bevacizumab,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1553–1559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Zorzi, Y. S. Chun, D. C. Madoff, E. K. Abdalla, and J. N. Vauthey, “Chemotherapy with bevacizumab does not affect liver regeneration after portal vein embolization in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 2765–2772, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Jaeck, E. Oussoultzoglou, E. Rosso et al., “A two-stage hepatectomy procedure combined with portal vein embolization to achieve curative resection for initially unresectable multiple and bilobar colorectal liver metastases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 240, no. 6, pp. 1037–1051, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Adam, A. Laurent, D. Azoulay et al., “Two-stage hepatectomy: a planned strategy to treat irresectable liver tumors,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 232, no. 6, pp. 777–785, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. J. Lygidakis, A. D. Bhagat, P. Vrachnos, and L. Grigorakos, “Challenges in everyday surgical practice: synchronous bilobar hepatic colorectal metastases—newer multimodality approach,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 54, no. 76, pp. 1020–1024, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. V. Sahani, S. P. Kalva, K. K. Tanabe et al., “Intraoperative US in patients undergoing surgery for liver neoplasms: comparison with MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 232, no. 3, pp. 810–814, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Torzilli and M. Makuuchi, “Intraoperative ultrasonography in liver cancer,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 91–103, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Donadon, F. Botea, D. Del Fabbro, A. Palmisano, M. Montorsi, and G. Torzilli, “The surgical policy predicts the impact of contrast enhanced intraoperative ultrasound for colorectal liver metastases,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 177–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Makuuchi, H. Hasegawa, and S. Yamazaki, “Ultrasonically guided subsegmentectomy,” Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 346–350, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Castaing, O. J. Garden, and H. Bismuth, “Segmental liver resection using ultrasound-guided selective portal venous occlusion,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 210, no. 1, pp. 20–23, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Shimamura, P. Gunven, and Y. Takenaka, “Selective portal branch occlusion by balloon catheter during liver resection,” Surgery, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 938–941, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Muratore, P. Conti, M. Amisano, H. Bouzari, and L. Capussotti, “Bisegmentectomy 7-8 as alternative to more extensive liver resections,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 200, no. 2, pp. 224–228, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Torzilli, M. Montorsi, F. D. Del, A. Palmisano, M. Donadon, and M. Makuuchi, “Ultrasonographically guided surgical approach to liver tumours involving the hepatic veins close to the caval confluence,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1238–1246, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  44. G. Torzilli, F. Procopio, F. Botea, M. Marconi, F. D. Del, M. Donadon et al., “One-stage ultrasonographically guided hepatectomy for multiple bilobar colorectal metastases: a feasible and effective alternative to the 2-stage approach,” Surgery, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 60–71, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  45. K. Sano, M. Makuuchi, K. Miki et al., “Evaluation of hepatic venous congestion: proposed indication criteria for hepatic vein reconstruction,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 236, no. 2, pp. 241–247, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. Takayama and M. Makuuchi, “Intraoperative ultrasonography and other techniques for segmental resections,” Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 261–269, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Torzilli, A. Palmisano, D. Del Fabbro, M. Donadon, and M. Montorsi, “Technical tricks for radical but conservative liver resection: the ultrasound guidance,” Minerva Chirurgica, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Torzilli, M. Montorsi, M. Donadon et al., ““Radical but conservative” is the main goal for ultrasonography-guided liver resection: prospective validation of this approach,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 201, no. 4, pp. 517–528, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Azoulay, D. Castaing, A. Smail et al., “Resection of nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after percutaneous portal vein embolization,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 231, no. 4, pp. 480–486, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Muratore, R. Polastri, H. Bouzari, V. Vergara, A. Ferrero, and L. Capussotti, “Repeat hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases: a worthwhile operation?” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  51. S. Suzuki, T. Sakaguchi, Y. Yokoi et al., “Impact of repeat hepatectomy on recurrent colorectal liver metastases,” Surgery, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 421–428, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Yamamoto, T. Kosuge, K. Shimada, S. Yamasaki, Y. Moriya, and K. Sugihara, “Repeat liver resection for recurrent colorectal liver metastases,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 275–281, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Bismuth, R. Adam, F. Lévi et al., “Resection of nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 224, no. 4, pp. 509–522, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. C. Fowler, B. L. Eisenberg, and J. P. Hoffman, “Hepatic resection following systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 122–125, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. “Modulation of fluorouracil by leucovorin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: evidence in terms of response rate,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 896–903, 1992. View at Scopus
  56. A. Wein, C. Riedel, F. Köckerling et al., “Impact of surgery on survival in palliative patients with metastatic colorectal cancer after first line treatment with weekly 24-hour infusion of high-dose 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1721–1727, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Y. Douillard, A. Sobrero, C. Carnaghi et al., “Metastatic colorectal cancer: integrating irinotecan into combination and sequential chemotherapy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 14, Supplement 2, pp. ii7–ii12, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. M. Goldberg, D. J. Sargent, R. F. Morton et al., “A randomized controlled trial of fluorouracil plus leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin combinations in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 23–30, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. Tournigand, T. André, E. Achille et al., “FOLFIRI followed by FOLFOX6 or the reverse sequence in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized GERCOR study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 229–237, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Folprecht, A. Grothey, S. Alberts, H. R. Raab, and C. H. Köhne, “Neoadjuvant treatment of unresectable colorectal liver metastases: correlation between tumour response and resection rates,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1311–1319, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Delaunoit, S. R. Alberts, D. J. Sergent et al., “Chemotherapy permits resection of metastatic colorectal cancer: experience from intergroup N9741,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 425–429, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Masi, F. Loupakis, L. Pollina et al., “Long-term outcome of initially unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) followed by radical surgery of metastases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 249, no. 3, pp. 420–425, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Pozzo, M. Basso, A. Cassano et al., “Neoadjuvant treatment of unresectable liver disease with irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil plus folinic acid in colorectal cancer patients,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 933–939, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Adam, E. Avisar, A. Ariche et al., “Five-year survival following hepatic resection after neoadjuvant therapy for nonresectable colorectal [liver] metastases,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 347–353, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. Elias, P. Lasser, P. Rougier, M. Ducreux, C. Bognel, and A. Roche, “Frequency, technical aspects, results, and indications of major hepatectomy after prolonged intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy for initially unresectable hepatic tumors,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 213–219, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Karoui, C. Penna, M. Amin-Hashem et al., “Influence of preoperative chemotherapy on the risk of major hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 243, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Adam, T. Aloia, F. Lévi et al., “Hepatic resection after rescue cetuximab treatment for colorectal liver metastases previously refractory to conventional systemic therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 29, pp. 4593–4602, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. B. Gruenberger, D. Tamandl, J. Schueller et al., “Bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin as neoadjuvant therapy for patients with potentially curable metastatic colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1830–1835, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. A. Scappaticci, L. Fehrenbacher, T. Cartwright et al., “Surgical wound healing complications in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 173–180, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. D'Angelica, P. Kornprat, M. Gonen et al., “Lack of evidence for increased operative morbidity after hepatectomy with perioperative use of bevacizumab: a matched case-control study,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 759–765, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. Mentha, A. D. Roth, S. Terraz et al., “'Liver first' approach in the treatment of colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases,” Digestive Surgery, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 430–435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Adam, D. A. Wicherts, R. J. De Haas et al., “Complete pathologic response after preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases: myth or reality?” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1635–1641, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. C. B. Tan, D. C. Linehan, W. G. Hawkins, B. A. Siegel, and S. M. Strasberg, “Chemotherapy-induced normalization of FDG uptake by colorectal liver metastases does not usually indicate complete pathologic response,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1112–1119, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Benoist, A. Brouquet, C. Penna et al., “Complete response of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: does it mean cure?” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 3939–3945, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. J. Oldhafer, G. A. Stavrou, G. Prause, H. O. Peitgen, T. C. Lueth, and S. Weber, “How to operate a liver tumor you cannot see,” Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, vol. 394, no. 3, pp. 489–494, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. D. Elias, D. Goere, V. Boige et al., “Outcome of posthepatectomy-missing colorectal liver metastases after complete response to chemotherapy: impact of adjuvant intra-arterial hepatic oxaliplatin,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 3188–3194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. G. Blazer, Y. Kishi, D. M. Maru et al., “Pathologic response to preoperative chemotherapy: a new outcome end point after resection of hepatic colorectal metastases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 33, pp. 5344–5351, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Ribero, H. Wang, M. Donadon et al., “Bevacizumab improves pathologic response and protects against hepatic injury in patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 12, pp. 2761–2767, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. K. Abdalla and J. N. Vauthey, “Chemotherapy prior to hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases: helpful until harmful?” Digestive Surgery, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 421–429, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. A. Kooby, Y. Fong, A. Suriawinata et al., “Impact of steatosis on perioperative outcome following hepatic resection,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1034–1044, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. N. Vauthey, T. M. Pawlik, D. Ribero et al., “Chemotherapy regimen predicts steatohepatitis and an increase in 90-day mortality after surgery for hepatic colorectal metastases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 2065–2072, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. L. Rubbia-Brandt, V. Audard, P. Sartoretti et al., “Severe hepatic sinusoidal obstruction associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 460–466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse et al., “Liver histology and surgical outcomes after preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer liver metastases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 31, pp. 4983–4990, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. N. N. Mehta, R. Ravikumar, C. A. Coldham et al., “Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on liver resection for colorectal liver metastases,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 782–786, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. Nakano, E. Oussoultzoglou, E. Rosso et al., “Sinusoidal injury increases morbidity after major hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases receiving preoperative chemotherapy,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 247, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. B. Nordlinger, H. Sorbye, B. Glimelius et al., “Perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 and surgery versus surgery alone for resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (EORTC Intergroup trial 40983): a randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9617, pp. 1007–1016, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H. Hur, Y. T. Ko, B. S. Min et al., “Comparative study of resection and radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of solitary colorectal liver metastases,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 197, no. 6, pp. 728–736, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. Elias, A. Goharin, A. El Otmany et al., “Usefulness of intratoperative radiofrequency thermoablation of liver tumours associated or not with hepatectomy,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 763–769, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. N. J. Lygidakis, G. Singh, E. Bardaxoglou et al., “Two-stage liver surgery for advanced liver metastasis synchronous with colorectal tumor,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 51, no. 56, pp. 413–418, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. K. Abdalla, J. N. Vauthey, L. M. Ellis et al., “Recurrence and outcomes following hepatic resection, radiofrequency ablation, and combined resection/ablation for colorectal liver metastases,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 239, no. 6, pp. 818–827, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Veltri, P. Sacchetto, I. Tosetti, E. Pagano, C. Fava, and G. Gandini, “Radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases: small size favorably predicts technique effectiveness and survival,” CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 948–956, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. Abitabile, U. Hartl, J. Lange, and C. A. Maurer, “Radiofrequency ablation permits an effective treatment for colorectal liver metastasis,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 67–71, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Rivoire, F. De Cian, P. Meeus, S. Ńgrier, H. Sebban, and P. Kaemmerlen, “Combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cryotherapy and surgical resection for the treatment of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma: long-term results,” Cancer, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 2283–2292, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. Hoti and R. Adam, “Liver transplantation for primary and metastatic liver cancers,” Transplant International, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1107–1117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. B. Kocman, D. Mikulic, S. Jadrijevic, M. Poljak, I. Kocman, S. Gasparov et al., “Long-term survival after living-donor liver transplantation for unresectable colorectal metastases to the liver: case report,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 4013–4015, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  96. F. Mühlbacher and F. Piza, “Orthotopic liver transplantation for secondary malignancies of the liver,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 19, no. 1, Part 3, pp. 2396–2398, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. Kappel, D. Kandioler, R. Steininger et al., “Genetic detection of lymph node micrometastases: a selection criterion for liver transplantation in patients with liver metastases after colorectal cancer,” Transplantation, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 64–70, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. J. Galon, A. Costes, F. Sanchez-Cabo et al., “Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome,” Science, vol. 313, no. 5795, pp. 1960–1964, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. T. M. Pawlik and M. A. Choti, “Shifting from clinical to biologic indicators of prognosis after resection of hepatic colorectal metastases,” Current Oncology Reports, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 193–201, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Guba, P. Von Breitenbuch, M. Steinbauer et al., “Rapamycin inhibits primary and metastatic tumor growth by antiangiogenesis: involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. J. Fung, D. Kelly, Z. Kadry, K. Patel-Tom, and B. Eghtesad, “Immunosuppression in liver transplantation beyond calcineurin inhibitors,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 267–280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. A. Foss, R. Adam, and S. Dueland, “Liver transplantation for colorectal liver metastases: revisiting the concept,” Transplant International, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 679–685, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus