Table of Contents
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 184508, 9 pages
Research Article

Short- and Medium-Term Induced Ionization in the Earth Atmosphere by Galactic and Solar Cosmic Rays

1Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
2Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland

Received 24 August 2012; Accepted 24 October 2012

Academic Editor: Prodromos Zanis

Copyright © 2013 Alexander Mishev. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the troposphere of the Earth. Solar energetic particles of MeV energies cause an excess of ionization in the atmosphere, specifically over polar caps. The ionization effect during the major ground level enhancement 69 on January 20, 2005 is studied at various time scales. The estimation of ion rate is based on a recent numerical model for cosmic-ray-induced ionization. The ionization effect in the Earth atmosphere is obtained on the basis of solar proton energy spectra, reconstructed from GOES 11 measurements and subsequent full Monte Carlo simulation of cosmic-ray-induced atmospheric cascade. The evolution of atmospheric cascade is performed with CORSIKA 6.990 code using FLUKA 2011 and QGSJET II hadron interaction models. The atmospheric ion rate is explicitly obtained for various latitudes, namely, 40°N, 60°N and 80°N. The time evolution of obtained ion rates is presented. The short- and medium-term ionization effect is compared with the average effect due to galactic cosmic rays. It is demonstrated that ionization effect is significant only in subpolar and polar atmosphere during the major ground level enhancement of January 20, 2005. It is negative in troposphere at midlatitude, because of the accompanying Forbush effect.