Table of Contents
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 261546, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/261546
Research Article

Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

1Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, 44 Kievskaya Street, 720000 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
2Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA, 944 E. Harmon Avenue, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA
3Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. EPA, 944 E. Harmon Avenue, Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA
4University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
5Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow 109017, Russia
6Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

Received 16 May 2013; Revised 14 August 2013; Accepted 14 August 2013

Academic Editor: Helena A. Flocas

Copyright © 2013 Boris B. Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regional sources are characterized by pollution transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.