Table of Contents
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume 2013, Article ID 898095, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/898095
Research Article

Characterization of Dispersive Fluxes in Mesoscale Models Using LES of Flow over an Array of Cubes

1SINTEF ICT, Applied Mathematics, Strindveien 4, 7050 Trondheim, Norway
2LESO-PB, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Received 31 March 2013; Revised 25 June 2013; Accepted 27 June 2013

Academic Editor: Helena A. Flocas

Copyright © 2013 Adil Rasheed and Darren Robinson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Field studies have shown that local climate is strongly influenced by urban structures. This influences both energy consumption and the pedestrian comfort. It is thus useful to be able to simulate the urban environment to take these effects into account in building and urban design. But for computational reasons, conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes cannot be used directly on a grid fine enough to resolve all scales found in a city. For this, we use mesoscale models, variants of CFD codes in which the 3D conservation equations are solved on grids having a resolution of a few kilometers. At this resolution, the effects of subgrid scales need implicit representations. In other words, phenomena such as momentum and energy exchanges averaged over the mesoscale grid contribute necessary sources/sinks to the corresponding equations. Such spatial averaging results in additional terms called dispersive fluxes. Until now these fluxes have been ignored. To better understand these fluxes, we have conducted large eddy simulations (LESs) over an array of cubes for different inter-cube spacings. The study shows that these fluxes are as important as the turbulent fluxes and exhibit trends which are related to the eddy formations inside the canopies.