Table of Contents
International Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Volume 2014, Article ID 680735, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/680735
Research Article

Physical and Chemical Components of Cuba’s Rain: Effects on Air Quality

1Laboratorio de Química de la Atmósfera, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad de Chile, RM8380492 Santiago, Chile
2Centro de Contaminación y Química Atmosférica, Instituto de Meteorología de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba

Received 30 April 2014; Accepted 8 July 2014; Published 12 August 2014

Academic Editor: Prodromos Zanis

Copyright © 2014 Margarita Préndez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Sanhueza, M. Santana, L. Donoso, and M. Pacheco, “Química atmosférica en la Gran Sabana III. Composición iónica y características ácido-básicas de las lluvias,” Interciencia, vol. 30, pp. 618–622, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Wet Deposition in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 2006.
  3. R. D. Vogt, J. Guo, J. Luo et al., “Water chemistry in forested acid sensitive sites in sub-tropical Asia receiving acid rain and alkaline dust,” Applied Geochemistry, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1140–1148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. A. Bravo, R. A. Soto, R. E. Sosa et al., “Effect of acid rain on building material of the El Tajín archaeological zone in Veracruz, Mexico,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 655–660, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Herrera, S. Rodríguez, and A. P. Baéz, “Chemical composition of bulk precipitation in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica, Central America,” Atmospheric Research, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 151–160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. World Meteorological Organization, International Operations Handbook for Measurement of Background Atmospheric Pollution, vol. 491 of WMO, 1978.
  7. World Meteorological Organization, Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives and Standard Operating Procedures, 2004.
  8. D. Migliavacca, E. C. Teixeira, F. Wiegand, A. C. M. Machado, and J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric precipitation and chemical composition of an urban site, Guaíba hydrographic basin, Brazil,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1829–1844, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. N. Mphepya, J. J. Pienaar, C. Galy-Lacaux, G. Held, and C. R. Turner, “Precipitation chemistry in semi-arid areas of Southern Africa: a case study of a rural and an industrial site,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–24, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. U. C. Kulshrestha, A. K. Sarkar, S. S. Srivastava, and D. C. Parashar, “Wet-only and bulk deposition studies at New Delhi (India),” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 2137–2142, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. C. Keene, A. A. P. Pszenny, J. N. Galloway, and M. E. Hartley, “Sea-salt corrections and interpretation of constituents ratios in marine precipitation,” Journal Geophysical Research, vol. 91, pp. 6647–6658, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. R. A. Duce, G. L. Hoffman, and W. H. Zoller, “Atmospheric trace metals at remote northern and southern hemisphere sites. Pollution or natural?” Science, vol. 187, no. 4171, pp. 59–61, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Hernández, “El Niño-Oscilación del Sur (ENOS) y los frentes fríos que arriban a la región occidental cubana,” Investigaciones Marinas, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 3–19, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. Jickells, A. Knap, T. Church, J. Galloway, and J. Miller, “Acid rain on Bermuda,” Nature, vol. 297, no. 5861, pp. 55–57, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. A. Pio, M. L. Salgueiro, and T. V. Nunes, “Seasonal and air mass trajectory: effects on rainwater quality at the southwestern European border,” Atmospheric Environment A: General Topics, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 2259–2266, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. B. L. S. Lara, P. Artaxo, L. A. Martinelli et al., “Chemical composition of rainwater and anthropogenic influences in the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 35, no. 29, pp. 4937–4945, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. T. Nastos, D. Alexakis, H. A. Kanellopoulou, and A. E. Kelepertsis, “Chemical composition of wet deposition in a Mediterranean site Athens, Greece related to the origin of air masses,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 167–179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. H. Coelho, J. G. Francisco, R. F. P. Nogueira, and M. L. A. M. Campos, “Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 42, no. 30, pp. 7115–7121, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. I. Kita, T. Sato, Y. Kase, and P. Mitropoulos, “Neutral rains at Athens, Greece: a natural safeguard against acidification of rains,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 327, no. 1–3, pp. 285–294, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. Hong-wei, X. Hua-yun, L. Ai-min, W. Yan-li, and L. Cong-qiang, “Chemical composition and source apportionment of rainwater at Guiyang, SW China,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 269–228, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. O. A. Al-Khashman, A. Q. Jaradat, and E. Salameh, “Five-year monitoring study of chemical characteristics of Wet atmospheric precipitation in the Southern region of Jordan,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 7, pp. 5715–5727, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. N. Galloway, A. H. Knap, and T. M. Church, “The composition of western Atlantic precipitation using shipboard collectors,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 88, no. 15, pp. 10859–10864, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. H. McDowell, C. Gines Sánchez, C. E. Asbury, and C. R. Ramos Perez, “Influence of sea salt aerosols and long range transport on precipitation chemistry at El Verde, Puerto Rico,” Atmospheric Environment A, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2813–2821, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus