Table of Contents
International Journal of Bacteriology
Volume 2013, Article ID 203432, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/203432
Research Article

New Medium for Pharmaceutical Grade Arthrospira

1Department of Protein Research, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, (Mubarak) City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Universities and Research Centre District, New Borg El-Arab, P.O. Box 21934, Alexandria, Egypt
2Institut für Molekulare Mikrobiologie ünd Biotekhnologie, Westfälishen Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 3, 48149 Münster, Germany

Received 29 May 2013; Revised 3 November 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013

Academic Editor: Gary Dykes

Copyright © 2013 Amro A. Amara and Alexander Steinbüchel. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. Ciferri, “Spirulina, the edible microorganism,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 551–578, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Kebede, “Response of Spirulina platensis (=Arthrospira fusiformis) from Lake Chitu, Ethiopia, to salinity stress from sodium salts,” Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 551–558, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. J. F. Turpin, “Spirulina oscillarioide,” in Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 50, pp. 309–310, DeLevrault, Paris, France, 1827. View at Google Scholar
  4. G.-G. Choi, C.-Y. Ahn, and H.-M. Oh, “Phylogenetic relationships of Arthrospira strainsinferred from16SrRNA geneand cpcBA-IGS sequences,” Algae, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 75–82, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. Rich, “Notes on Arthrospira platetnsis,” Rev Algol, vol. 6, pp. 75–79, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Dangeard, “Sur une algue bleue alimentaire pour l'homme: Arthrospira platensis (Nordst.),” Gomont. Actes Soc. Linn. Boreaux Extr. Procés-Verbaux, vol. 91, pp. 39–41, 1940. View at Google Scholar
  7. G. Chamorro, M. Salazar, K. G. de Lima Araújo, C. P. dos Santos, G. Ceballos, and L. F. Castillo, “Update on the pharmacology of Spirulina (Arthrospira), an unconventional food,” Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 232–240, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Richmond, “Large scale microalgal culture and applications,” in Progressin Phycological Research, vol. 7, Biopress, Bristol, UK, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  9. I. Avila-Leon, M. Chuei Matsudo, S. Sato, and J. C. M. De Carvalho, “Arthrospira platensis biomass with high protein content cultivated in continuous process using urea as nitrogen source,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 112, pp. 1086–1094, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. Shimamatsu, “Mass production of Spirulina, an edible microalga,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 512, pp. 39–44, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Zarrouk, Contribution a l’etude d’une cyanophycee. Influence de divers facteurs physiques et chimiques sur la croissance et la photosynthese de Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gardner). Geitler [Ph.D. thesis], University of Paris, Paris, France, 1966.
  12. A. Iltis, “Tolerance de salinite de Spirulina platensis (Gom.). Geitl., (Cyanophyta). dans les mares natronees du Kanem (Tchad),” Cahiers ORSTOM: Série Hydrobiologie, vol. 2, pp. 119–125, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  13. E. A. Davis, “Growth of algae in mass culture: plastic and glass tubing,” in Algal Culture: From LaboraTory To Pilot Plant, J. S. Burlew, Ed., pp. 113–153, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, USA, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  14. Y.-K. Lee and C.-S. Low, “Effect of photobioreactor inclination on the biomass productivity of an outdoor algal culture,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 995–1000, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. O. Pulz and P. Kretschmer, “Perspectives of phototrophic microorganisms in environment protection and ecology,” Acta Biotechnologica, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 517–520, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Hai, H. Ahlers, V. Gorenflo, and A. Steinbüchel, “Axenic cultivation of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and microalgae in a new closed tubular glass photobioreactor,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 383–389, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Oncel and F. V. Sukan, “Comparison of two different pneumatically mixed column photobioreactors for the cultivation of Artrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis),” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 4755–4760, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. C. Matsudo, R. P. Bezerra, S. Sato, A. Converti, and J. C. M. de Carvalho, “Photosynthetic efficiency and rate of CO2 assimilation by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis continuously cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor,” Biotechnology Journal, vol. 7, pp. 1412–1417, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. L. Narasimha, G. S. Venkataraman, S. K. Duggal, and B. O. Eggum, “Nutritional quality of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis Geitler,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 456–460, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Belay, T. Kato, and Y. Ota, “Spirulina (Arthrospira): potential application as an animal feed supplement,” Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 8, no. 4-5, pp. 303–311, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. J. Ortega-Calvo, C. Mazuelos, B. Hermosin, and C. Saiz-Jimenez, “Chemical composition of Spirulina and eukaryotic algae food products marketed in Spain,” Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 425–435, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Hirata, M. Tanaka, M. Ooike, T. Tsunomura, and M. Sakaguchi, “Antioxidant activities of phycocyanobilin prepared from Spirulina platensis,” Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 12, no. 3-5, pp. 435–439, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Kato, “Blue pigment from Spirulina,” New Food Industry, vol. 29, pp. 17–21, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. T. Kursar and S. R. Alberte, “Photosynthetic unit organization in a red algae,” Plant Physiology, vol. 72, pp. 409–414, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. Rodríguez-Sánchez, R. Ortiz- Butrón, V. Blas-Valdivia, A. Hernández-García, and E. Cano-Europa, “Phycobiliproteins or C-phycocyanin of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima protect against HgCl(2)-caused oxidative stress and renal damage,” Food Chemistry, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 2359–2365, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Sharaf, A. Amara, A. Aboul-Enein et al., “Molecular authentication and characterization of the antiherpetic activity of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis,” Pharmazie, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 132–136, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Hayashi, K. Hayashi, M. Maeda, and I. Kojima, “Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 83–87, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Gong, Y. Tang, J. Wang, X. Wen, L. Zhang, and C. Lu, “Characterization of photosystem II in salt-stressed cyanobacterial Spirulina platensis cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1777, no. 6, pp. 488–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Lu and J. Zhang, “Role of light in the response of PSII photochemistry to salt stress in the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 51, no. 346, pp. 911–917, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. M. Atlas and L. C. Parks, Handbook of Microbiological Media, CRC. Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 1997.
  31. H. Chen and S.-S. Pan, “Bioremediation potential of spirulina: toxicity and biosorption studies of lead,” Journal of Zhejiang University, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 171–174, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. V. Kotinsky, L. A. Chernukhina, G. V. Donchenko et al., “Effect of iodine and cobalt salts on biologically active substances content in spirulina biomass,” Ukrain'skyi Biokhimichnyi Zhurnal, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 112–116, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Lodi, L. Binaghi, C. Solisio, A. Converti, and M. Del Borghi, “Nitrate and phosphate removal by Spirulina platensis,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 656–660, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Ruengjitchatchawalya, N. Chirasuwan, R. Chaiklahan, B. Bunnag, M. Tanticharoen, and P. Deshnium, “Photosynthetic characterization of a mutant of Spirulina platensis,” Journal of Applied Phycology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 71–76, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus