Table of Contents
International Journal of Bacteriology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5751785, 5 pages
Research Article

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Healthcare- and Community-Associated Infections in Egypt

1US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo 11517, Egypt
2Global Disease Detection Center, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cairo, Egypt
3Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
4Alexandria University, Alexandria 21599, Egypt
5Cairo University, Cairo 12316, Egypt
6Ministry of Health and Population, Cairo 11516, Egypt

Received 14 February 2016; Revised 18 May 2016; Accepted 26 May 2016

Academic Editor: Gary Dykes

Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Abdel-Maksoud et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has created significant epidemiological, infection-control, and therapeutic management challenges during the past three decades. Aim. To analyze the pattern of resistance of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA in Egypt and the trend of resistance of HA-MRSA over time (2005–2013). Methods. MRSA isolates were recovered from healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections. They were tested against 11 antimicrobial discs and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) was also screened using D-test. Findings. Of 631 S. aureus, MRSA was identified in 343 (76.6%) and 21 (11.5%) of HA and CA S. aureus isolates, respectively. The proportion of HA-MRSA increased significantly from 48.6% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2013 ( value < 0.001). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 85.8% of HA-MRSA and 48.6% of CA-MRSA. Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) was detected in 1.2% of HA-MRSA and none was detected in CA-MRSA. Among HA-MRSA strains, 5.3% showed iMLSB compared to 9.5% among CA-MRSA. Conclusion. The upsurge of the prevalence rates of HA-MRSA over time is alarming and urges for an effective infection control strategy and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use.