Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Biodiversity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 798101, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/798101
Review Article

Factors Affecting the Success of Conserving Biodiversity in National Parks: A Review of Case Studies from Africa

1University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3 WITS 2050, South Africa
2Mountains of the Moon University, P.O. Box 837, Fort-Portal, Uganda

Received 4 October 2012; Revised 8 January 2013; Accepted 22 January 2013

Academic Editor: Antonio Terlizzi

Copyright © 2013 Moses Muhumuza and Kevin Balkwill. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Chape, S. Blyth, L. Fish, P. Fox, and M. Spalding, The 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK, 2003.
  2. M. Colchester, “Salvaging nature: indigenous peoples, protected areas and biodiversity conservation,” in World Rainforest Movement, International Secretariat, Maldonado, Uruguay, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  3. W. Adams, Against Extinction: The Story of Conservation, Earthscan, London, UK, 2004.
  4. S. Stolton, S. Mansourian, and N. Dudley, Valuing Protected Areas, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
  5. R. A. Schroeder, “Geographies of environmental intervention in Africa,” Progress in Human Geography, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 359–378, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. A. Galvin, P. K. Thornton, J. R. de Pinho, J. Sunderland, and R. B. Boone, “Integrated modeling and its potential for resolving conflicts between conservation and people in the rangelands of East Africa,” Human Ecology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 155–183, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. M. Tumusiime, P. Vedeld, and W. Gombya-Ssembajjwe, “Breaking the law? Illegal livelihoods from a Protected Area in Uganda,” Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 273–283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. C. Malleson, Forest livelihoods in southwest province, Cameroon: an evaluation of the Korup experience [doctoral thesis], University College London, 2000.
  9. F. G. Vodouhê, O. Coulibaly, A. Adégbidi, and B. Sinsin, “Community perception of biodiversity conservation within protected areas in Benin,” Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 505–512, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. H. M. Butchart, M. Walpole, B. Collen et al., “Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5982, pp. 1164–1168, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montréal, Canada, 2010.
  12. M. R. W. Rands, W. M. Adams, L. Bennun et al., “Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5997, pp. 1298–1303, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. A. P. de Oliveira, “Implementing environmental policies in developing countries through decentralization: The case of protected areas in Bahia, Brazil,” World Development, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1713–1736, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. J. Randolph, “A guide to writing the dissertation literature review,” Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 1–13, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. Fereday and E. Muir-Cochrane, “Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development,” International Journal of Qualitative Methods, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. W. Kiringe, M. M. Okello, and S. W. Ekajul, “Managers' perceptions of threats to the protected areas of Kenya: prioritization for effective management,” Oryx, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 314–321, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. R. Kideghesho, E. Røskaft, and B. P. Kaltenborn, “Factors influencing conservation attitudes of local people in Western Serengeti, Tanzania,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 2213–2230, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Hoole and F. Berkes, “Breaking down fences: recoupling social-ecological systems for biodiversity conservation in Namibia,” Geoforum, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 304–317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Salafsky, H. Cauley, G. Balachander et al., “A systematic test of an enterprise strategy for community-based biodiversity conservation,” Conservation Biology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1585–1595, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Lewis, G. B. Kaweche, and A. Mwenya, “Wildlife conservation outside protected areas&lessons from an experiment in Zambia,” Conservation Biology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 171–180, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. Mugisha, Evaluation of community-based conservation approaches: management of protected areas in Uganda [Ph.D. thesis], University of Florida, 2002.
  22. K. Archabald and L. Naughton-Treves, “Tourism revenue-sharing around national parks in Western Uganda: early efforts to identify and reward local communities,” Environmental Conservation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 135–149, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Shackleton, B. Campbell, E. Wollenberg, and D. Edmunds, Devolution and Community-Based Natural Resource Management: Creating Space for Local People to Participate and Benefit, Natural Resource Perspectives. ODI, 2002.
  24. A. G. Bruner, R. E. Gullison, R. E. Rice, and G. A. B. Da Fonseca, “Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5501, pp. 125–128, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Roe, J. Mayers, M. Grieg-Gran, A. Kothari, C. Fabricius, and R. Hughes, Evaluating Eden: Exploring the Myths and Realities of Community-Based Wildlife Management, Evaluating Eden Series No. 8, 2000.
  26. M. McDuff, “Needs assessment for participatory evaluation of environmental education programs,” Applied Environmental Education & Communication, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–36, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Boyd, R. Blench, D. Bourn, L. Drake, and P. Stevenson, Reconciling Interests Among Wildlife, Livestock and People in Eastern Africa: A Sustainable Livelihoods Approach, Resource Perspectives: ODI, 1999.
  28. T. Holmern, E. Røskaft, J. Mbaruka, S. Y. Mkama, and J. Muya, “Uneconomical game cropping in a community-based conservation project outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania,” Oryx, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 364–372, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Dudley, A. Belokurov, O. Borodin, L. Higgins-Zogib, M. L. L. Hockings, and S. Stolton, Are Protected Areas Working? An Analysis of Forest Protected Areas, WWF International, Gland, Switzerland, 2004.
  30. C. Kremen, V. Razafimahatratra, R. P. Guillery, J. Rakotomalala, A. Weiss, and J. S. Ratsisompatrarivo, “Designing the Masoala National Park in Madagascar based on biological and socioeconomic data,” Conservation Biology, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1055–1068, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. G. Njogu, “Community-based conservation in an entitlement perspective,” Research Report 73, African Studies Centre, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  32. R. J. Shrivastava and J. Heinen, “A microsite analysis of resource use around Kaziranga national park, India: implications for conservation and development planning,” Journal of Environment and Development, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 207–226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. L. Wily and S. Mbaya, “Land, people and forests in eastern and southern Africa at the beginning of the 21st century,” in The Impact of Land Relations on the Role of Communities in Forest Future, p. 313, IUCN-EARO, Nairobi, Kenya, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. Agrawal and K. Redford, “Place, conservation, and displacement,” Conservation Society, vol. 7, pp. 56–58, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  35. P. J. Balint and J. Mashinya, “The decline of a model community-based conservation project: governance, capacity, and devolution in Mahenye, Zimbabwe,” Geoforum, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 805–815, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Derman, “Environmental NGOs, dispossession, and the state: the ideology and praxis of African nature and development,” Human Ecology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 199–215, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Kasparek, “Sustainable forest management and conservation project evaluation of pilot measures in Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique and Namibia,” Research Report, Sustainable Forests Management and Conservation Project FANR/SADC - GTZ, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Samson and L. Maotonyane, Community-Based Natural Resource Conservation and Development the Experience of Botswana, The World Bank/WBI’s CBNRM Initiative, 1998.
  39. N. Dudley, J. Hurd, and A. Belokurov, Eds., Towards an Effective Protected Areas Network in Africa. Experience in Assessing Protected Area Management Effectiveness and Future Proposals, WWF International, Gland, Switzerland, 2005.
  40. A. Ormsby and B. A. Kaplin, “A framework for understanding community resident perceptions of Masoala National Park, Madagascar,” Environmental Conservation, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 156–164, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Caro, T. A. Gardner, C. Stoner, E. Fitzherbert, and T. R. B. Davenport, “Assessing the effectiveness of protected areas: paradoxes call for pluralism in evaluating conservation performance,” Diversity and Distributions, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 178–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Ervin, “Rapid assessment of protected area management effectiveness in four countries,” BioScience, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 833–841, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Ervin, “Protected area assessments in perspective,” BioScience, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 819–822, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Stuart-Hill, R. Diggle, B. Munali, J. Tagg, and D. Ward, “The event book system: a community-based natural resource monitoring system from Namibia,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2611–2631, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Topp-Jørgensen, M. K. Poulsen, J. F. Lund, and J. F. Massao, “Community-based monitoring of natural resource use and forest quality in montane forests and miombo woodlands of tanzania,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2653–2677, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. J. Fisher and W. J. Jackson, “Action Research for collaborative management of protected areas,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Collaborative Management of Protected Areas in the Asian Region, Sauraha, Nepal, 1998.
  47. R. Taylor, “Community based natural resource Management in zimbabwe: The experience of CAMPFIRE,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2563–2583, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. A. Timko and T. Satterfield, “Seeking equity in National Parks: case studies from South Africa and Canada,” Conservation & Society, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 238–254, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  49. J. A. Timko and J. L. Innes, “Evaluating ecological integrity in national parks: case studies from Canada and South Africa,” Biological Conservation, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 676–688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. C. Gibson and S. A. Marks, “Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: an assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa,” World Development, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 941–957, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. Mbile, M. Vabi, M. Meboka et al., “Linking management and livelihood in environmental conservation: case of the Korup National Park Cameroon,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. Wainwright and W. Wehrmeyer, “Success in integrating conservation and development? A study from Zambia,” World Development, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 933–944, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Williams, T. S. Masoud, and W. J. Othman, Community-Based Conservation: Experiences from Zanzibar, Gatekeeper Series No. 80, International Institute for Environment and Development, 1992.
  54. A. B. Mallya, An Evaluation Community Conservation in Western Serengeti, African Conservation Foundation, 2006.
  55. M. M. Musumali, T. S. Larsen, and B. P. Kaltenborn, “An impasse in community based natural resource management implementation: The case of Zambia and Botswana,” Oryx, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 306–313, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Parcs Nationaux Madagascar, Madagascar Protected Area System Management Plan 200-2006, Ministry of Environment Water and Forests, 2001.
  57. K. L. Metzger, A. R. E. Sinclair, R. Hilborn, J. G. C. Hopcraft, and S. A. R. Mduma, “Evaluating the protection of wildlife in parks: The case of African buffalo in Serengeti,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 3431–3444, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. S. Wilkie, J. F. Carpenter, and Q. Zhang, “The under-financing of protected areas in the Congo Basin: so many parks and so little willingness-to-pay,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 691–709, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Hamilton, A. Cunningham, D. Byarugaba, and F. Kayanja, “Conservation in a region of political instability: bwindi impenetrable forest, Uganda,” Conservation Biology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1722–1725, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Rutagarama, “Protected area management effectiveness, the case study of Rwanda in Africa,” in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, November 2010.
  61. M. Hockings, “Evaluating protected area management: a review of systems for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas,” Occasional Paper, WWF, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  62. P. S. Goodman, South Africa: Management Effectiveness Assessment of Protected Areas in KwaZulu-Natal Using WWF’s RAPPAM Methodology, WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 2003.
  63. P. S. Goodman, “Assessing management effectiveness and setting priorities in protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal,” BioScience, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 843–850, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Tenywa, “UWA suspends 4 top officials,” New vision article, 2011, http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/13/758605.
  65. E. Anyoli, Ex NFA Boss Akankwasa Out on Bail, East African News, 2011.
  66. R. H. Nelson, “Environmental colonialism: “Saving” Africa from Africans,” Independent Review, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 65–86, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. P. Neumann, “Primitive ideas: protected area buffer zones and the politics of land in Africa,” Development and Change, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 559–582, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. B. Ghimire and M. P. Pimbert, “Social change and conservation: an overview of issues and concepts,” in Social Change and Conservation, Environment Politics and Impacts of National Parks and Protected Areas, K. B. Ghimire and M. P. Pimbert, Eds., pp. 1–45, Earthscan, London, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  69. R. G. Wild and J. Mutebi, “Conservation through community use of plant resources. Establishing collaborative management at Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks, Uganda,” in People and Plants, Working Paper No. 5, UNESCO, Paris, France, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  70. J. Hutton and B. Dickson, “Conservation out of exploitation: a silk purse from a sow’s ear?” in Conservation of Exploited Species, J. D. Reynolds, G. M. Mace, K. H. Redford, and J. G. Robinson, Eds., pp. 440–461, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  71. W. Cadman, The Debate on Elephant Culling in South Africa: An Overview, IFAW, 2005.
  72. P. O. Camara, Analysis of Nutritional Practices of the Communities in Upper Niger National Park, The World Bank/WBI’s CBNRM Initiative, 1998.
  73. W. D. Newmark, “Isolation of African protected areas,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 321–328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Naughton-Treves, M. B. Holland, and K. Brandon, “The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 30, pp. 219–252, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. L. Shaffer, “Minimum population sizes for species conservation,” BioScience, vol. 31, no. 30, pp. 131–134, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  76. P. Coulibaly-Lingani, Appraisal of the participatory forest management program in southern Burkina Faso [Ph.D. thesis], Acta Universitatis Agriculturae, 2011.
  77. H. Mogaka, G. Simons, J. Turpie, F. Karanja, and L. Emerton, Economic Aspects of Community Involvement in Sustainable Forest Management in Eastern and Southern Africa, The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi, Kenya, 2001.
  78. P. Alpert, “Integrated conservation and development projects: examples from Africa,” BioScience, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 845–855, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. B. Barrett and P. Arcese, “Are integrated conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa,” World Development, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1073–1084, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. M. Adams and J. Hutton, “People, parks and poverty: political ecology and biodiversity conservation,” Conservation and Society, vol. 5, pp. 147–183, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  81. A. J. Noss, “Challenges to nature conservation with community development in Central African forests,” Oryx, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 180–188, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. WHO, “Human development index,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 981–994, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  83. W. D. Newmark and J. L. Hough, “Conserving wildlife in Africa: integrated conservation and development projects and beyond,” BioScience, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 585–592, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. M. Holmes, “Assessing the perceived utility of wood resources in a protected area of Western Tanzania,” Biological Conservation, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 179–189, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. R. Marcus, “Seeing the forest for the trees: integrated conservation and development projects and local perceptions of conservations in Madagascar,” Human Ecology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 381–397, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. Brandon, K. H. Redford, and S. E. Sanderson, Eds., Parks in Peril. People, Political, and Protected Areas, Island Press and The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC, USA, 1998.
  87. W. Adams and M. Infield, “Park outreach and gorilla conservation: Mgahinga Gorilla National Park, Uganda,” in African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, D. Hulme and M. Murpree, Eds., pp. 131–147, James Currey, Oxford, UK, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  88. E. Barrow and M. Murphree, “Community conservation: from concept to practice,” in African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, D. Hulme and M. Murphree, Eds., p. 2437, James Currey, Oxford, UK, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  89. E. Nkonya, J. Pender, E. Kato, S. Mugarura, and J. Muwonge, Who Knows, Who Cares? Determinants of Enactment, Awareness and Compliance With Community Natural Resource Management By-Laws in Uganda, Working Paper no. 41, CAPRi, Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
  90. S. Ernst, “Uganda: consequences of the establishment of Rwenzori Mountains National Park,” Geographische Rundschau, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 57–63, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. P. Blaikie and S. Jeanrenaud, Biodiversity and Human Welfare, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
  92. C. Averbeck, “Incorporating local people through economic incentives at Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda,” in Stakeholder Dialogues in Natural Resources Management, pp. 325–343, Heidelberg Publishers, Berlin, Germany, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  93. M. Norton-Griffiths, “The economics of wildlife conservation policy in Kenya,” in Conservation of Biological Resources, E. J. Milner-Gulland and R. Mace, Eds., p. 279, Blackwell, Malden, Mass, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  94. W. Olupot, A. J. McNeilage, and A. J. Plumptre, An Analysis of Socioeconomics of Bushmeat Hunting at Major Hunting Sites in Uganda, WCS Working Papers, 2009.
  95. A. H. Harcourt, S. A. Parks, and R. Woodroffe, “Human density as an influence on species/area relationships: double jeopardy for small African reserves?” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1011–1026, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. G. Wittemyer, P. Elsen, W. T. Bean, A. C. O. Burton, and J. S. Brashares, “Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5885, pp. 123–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. J. Igoe, Conservation and Globalization: A Study of National Parks and Indigenous Communities from East Africa to South Dakota, Wadsworth Press, Belmont, Calif, USA, 2003.
  98. S. R. Kellert, J. N. Mehta, S. A. Ebbin, and L. L. Lichtenfeld, “Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric, and reality,” Society and Natural Resources, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 705–715, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. C. B. Barrett and P. Arcese, “Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa,” World Development, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1073–1084, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. C. Antons, “The role of traditional knowledge and access to genetic resources in biodiversity conservation in Southeast Asia,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1189–1204, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. F. Berkes, J. Colding, and C. Folke, “Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management,” Ecological Applications, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1251–1262, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus