Table of Contents
International Journal of Brain Science
Volume 2014, Article ID 104785, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/104785
Research Article

Hippocampal Glial Degenerative Potentials of Mefloquine and Artequin in Adult Wistar Rats

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, PMB 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

Received 19 December 2013; Revised 3 February 2014; Accepted 17 February 2014; Published 19 March 2014

Academic Editor: Fabio Pilato

Copyright © 2014 Nsikan-Abasi B. Udoh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mefloquine and Artequin are two effective antimalarial drugs currently in use in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study was to investigate the hippocampal glial degenerative potentials of these drugs in adult Wistar rats. Forty-nine adult Wistar rats weighing 200 g were divided into groups 1–7. Group 1 served as the control that received distilled water, while groups 2–7 received oral doses of 0.86/1.07 mg/kg, 1.71/2.14 mg/kg, and 3.24/4.28 mg/kg of Artequin and 1.07 mg/kg, 2.14 mg/kg, and 4.28 mg/kg of Mefloquine. The treatment lasted for three days, and on day 4 the animals were sacrificed. Their hippocampi were preserved in neutral formal saline and processed by silver impregnation method. The histomorphology of the hippocampal sections of rats in the groups treated with 2.14 mg/kg and 4.28 mg/kg of Mefloquine and 0.86/1.07 mg/kg, 1.71/2.14 mg/kg, and 3.24/4.28 mg/kg of Artequin showed large and dense populations of astrocytes and astrocytes’ processes, with either loss or reduction in the population of oligodendrocytes. There was also loss in the population of pyramidal neurons all compared with the control group. In conclusion, Mefloquine and Artequin administration induced dose-dependent reactive astrocytes and astrocytes’ processes formation in the hippocampus. This may impair the uptake of neurotransmitter and alter neuronal environment thus altering the hippocampal function.