Table 1: Features of the three schemes.

Always Best Connected (ABC) NEMOConcurrent multipath transfer (CMT) NEMOcmt-SCTP

Use of pathsSwitched sequential transmission.Concurrent transmission.Concurrent transmission.
BandwidthA trade-off against path switching overhead.Effective bandwidth
aggregation is achieved. Aggregation is suboptimal due to the relatively small overhead required to prevent out-of-sequence packet delivery (average 14 ms).
Effective bandwidth aggregation.
AggregationHigher levels of aggregation lead to increased switching overhead and lower QoE for the user.The reliable nature of SCTP can reduce throughput due to both control messages and retransmissions.
Path switching overheadsAverage 137 ms [12].No path switching delay incurred.No path switching delay incurred.
Control plane overheadsInitial session setup control messages.Initial session setup control messages.Messaging for acknowledgement of
delivery, retransmissions, and congestion control throughout streaming session.
Path switching REQ and ACK between CN and HA for every path switching operation.No path switching messages during session.
Multihoming requirementThe HA and the MR in the infrastructure are multihomed.The HA and the MR in the infrastructure are multihomed.All end hosts are multihomed.
Mobility supportAll mobile hosts in the whole mobile network.All mobile hosts in the whole mobile network.An individual mobile host only.