Table of Contents
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 145262, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/145262
Research Article

The Role of Genetic Drift in Shaping Modern Human Cranial Evolution: A Test Using Microevolutionary Modeling

1Department of Anatomy, Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, 19555 North 59th Avenue, Glendale, AZ 85308, USA
2School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-2402, USA

Received 16 September 2010; Revised 3 January 2011; Accepted 14 January 2011

Academic Editor: Bing Su

Copyright © 2011 Heather F. Smith. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. H. Relethford, “Global analysis of regional differences in craniometric diversity and population substructure,” Human Biology, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 629–636, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. H. Relethford, “Global patterns of isolation by distance based on genetic and morphological data,” Human Biology, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 499–543, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. González-José, S. V. Van Der Molen, E. González-Pérez, and M. Hernández, “Patterns of phenotypic covariation and correlation in modern humans as viewed from morphological integration,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. C. Roseman, “Detecting interregionally diversifying natural selection on modern human cranial form by using matched molecular and morphometric data,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 35, pp. 12824–12829, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Harvati and T. D. Weaver, “Human cranial anatomy and the differential preservation of population history and climate signatures,” Anatomical Record A, vol. 288, no. 12, pp. 1225–1233, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. F. Smith, C. E. Terhune, and C. A. Lockwood, “Genetic, geographic, and environmental correlates of human temporal bone variation,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 312–322, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. F. Smith, “Which cranial regions reflect molecular distances reliably in humans? Evidence from three-dimensional morphology,” American Journal of Human Biology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 36–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Von Cramon-Taubadel, “Congruence of individual cranial bone morphology and neutral molecular affinity patterns in modern humans,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 205–215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. von Cramon-Taubadel, “Revisiting the homoiology hypothesis: the impact of phenotypic plasticity on the reconstruction of human population history from craniometric data,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 179–190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Nicholson and K. Harvati, “Quantitative analysis of human mandibular shape using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 368–383, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Lande, “Quantitative genetic analysis of multivariate evolution, applied to brain:body size allometry,” Evolution, vol. 33, pp. 402–416, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. M. Cheverud, “A comparison of genetic and phenotypic correlations,” Evolution, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 958–968, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. A. Roff, “The estimation of genetic correlations from phenotypic correlations: a test of Cheverud's conjecture,” Heredity, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 481–490, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. A. Roff, “The evolution of genetic correlations: an analysis of patterns,” Evolution, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 1392–1403, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. R. Roots and J. P. Gibson, “Realized sampling variances of estimates of genetic parameters and the difference between genetic and phenotypic correlations,” Genetics, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 1409–1416, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Lande, “Genetic variation and phenotypic evolution during allopatric speciation,” American Naturalist, vol. 116, pp. 463–479, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  17. D. Lofsvold, “Quantitative genetics of morphological differentiation in Peromyscus. II. Analysis of selection and drift,” Evolution, vol. 42, pp. 54–67, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. R. Ackermann and J. M. Cheverud, “Phenotypic covariance structure in tamarins (genus Saguinus): a comparison of variation patterns using matrix correlation and common principal component analysis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 489–501, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. R. Ackermann and J. M. Cheverud, “Discerning evolutionary processes in patterns of tamarin (genus Saguinus) craniofacial variation,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 260–271, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Marroig and J. M. Cheverud, “A comparison of phenotypic variation and covariation patterns and the role of phylogeny, ecology, and ontogeny during cranial evolution of New World Monkeys,” Evolution, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 2576–2600, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Marroig and J. M. Cheverud, “Did natural selection or genetic drift produce the cranial diversification of neotropical monkeys?” American Naturalist, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 417–428, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. R. Ackermann and J. M. Cheverud, “Detecting genetic drift versus selection in human evolution,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 52, pp. 17946–17951, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. D. Weaver, C. C. Roseman, and C. B. Stringer, “Were neandertal and modern human cranial differences produced by natural selection or genetic drift?” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 135–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Wright, “Isolation by distance,” Genetics, vol. 28, pp. 114–138, 1943. View at Google Scholar
  25. N. E. Morton, S. Yee, D. E. Harris, and R. Lew, “Bioassay of kinship,” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 507–524, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, P. Menozzi, and P. Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1994.
  27. N. Von Cramon-Taubadel and S. J. Lycett, “Brief communication: human cranial variation fits iterative founder effect model with African origin,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 108–113, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Betti, F. Balloux, W. Amos, T. Hanihara, and A. Manica, “Distance from Africa, not climate, explains within-population phenotypic diversity in humans,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 276, no. 1658, pp. 809–814, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Kimura, “Evolutionary rate at the molecular level,” Nature, vol. 217, no. 5129, pp. 624–626, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983.
  31. J. L. King and T. H. Jukes, “Non-Darwinian evolution,” Science, vol. 167, pp. 788–798, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  32. R. Lande, “Natural selection and random genetic drift in phenotypic evolution,” Evolution, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 314–334, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Lynch and W. G. Hill, “Phenotypic evolution by neutral mutation,” Evolution, vol. 40, pp. 915–935, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Turelli, J. H. Gillespie, and R. Lande, “Rate tests for selection on quantitative characters during macroevolution and microevolution,” Evolution, vol. 42, pp. 1085–1089, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. Buikstra and U. H. Ubelaker, Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains, Arkansas Archaeological Survey, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 1994.
  36. W. M. Bass, Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual, Missouri Archaeological Society, Columbia, Mo, USA, 4th edition, 1995.
  37. C. A. Lockwood, W. H. Kimbel, and J. M. Lynch, “Morphometrics and hominoid phylogeny: support for a chimpanzee-human clade and differentiation among great ape subspecies,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4356–4360, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. C. Gower, “Generalized procrustes analysis,” Psychometrika, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 33–51, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. J. Rohlf and D. Slice, “Extensions of the Procrustes method for the optimal superimposition of landmarks,” Systematic Zoology, vol. 39, pp. 40–59, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  40. C. R. Goodall, “Procrustes methods and the statistical analysis of shape (with discussion),” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, vol. 53, pp. 285–340, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  41. I. L. Dryden and K. V. Mardia, Statistical Shape Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1998.
  42. C. P. Klingenberg, MorphoJ, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, 2008.
  43. M. Lynch, “Methods for the analysis of comparative data in evolutionary biology,” Evolution, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1065–1080, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Ramachandran, O. Deshpande, C. C. Roseman, N. A. Rosenberg, M. W. Feldman, and L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, “Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 44, pp. 15942–15947, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. N. Mantel, “The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach,” Cancer Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 209–220, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. E. Smouse, J. C. Long, and R. T. Sokal, “Multiple regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel test of matrix correspondence,” Systematic Zoology, vol. 35, pp. 627–632, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  47. B. Flury, Common Principal Components and Related Multivariate Methods, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
  48. P. C. Phillips and S. J. Arnold, “Hierarchical comparison of genetic variance-covariance matrices. I. Using the flury hierarchy,” Evolution, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1506–1515, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. L. Hylander, “The adaptive significance of Eskimo craniofacial morphology,” in Orofacial Growth and Development, A. A. Dahlberg and T. Graber, Eds., pp. 129–169, Mouton, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  50. A. Balicki, The Netsilik Eskimo, Natural History Press, Garden City, NJ, USA, 1970.
  51. J. K. So, “Human biological adaptation to arctic and subarctic zones,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 9, pp. 63–82, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  52. S. C. Antón, “Tendon-associated bone features of the masticatory system in Neandertals,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 391–408, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. De Poncins, Kablooma, Reynal, New York, NY, USA, 1941.
  54. S. Van Holst Pellekaan, M. Frommer, J. Sved, and B. Boettcher, “Mitochondrial D-loop diversity in Australian riverine and Australian desert Aborigines,” Electrophoresis, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1538–1543, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. M. Van Holst Pellekaan, M. Frommer, J. A. Sved, and B. Boettcher, “Mitochondrial control-region sequence variation in aboriginal Australians,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 435–449, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. J. Redd and M. Stoneking, “Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA variation in Aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean populations,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 808–828, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. R. Summerhayes, “Island Melanesian pasts—a view from archaeology,” in Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific, J. S. Friedlaender, Ed., pp. 10–35, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  58. J. S. Friedlaender, F. R. Friedlaender, F. A. Reed et al., “The genetic structure of Pacific Islanders,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 1, article e19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar