Divergence in Defence against Herbivores between Males and Females of Dioecious Plant Species
Possible scenarios of the inception of morph- or sex-biased herbivory in the evolution of dioecy via the gynodioecy pathway. Symbols represent hermaphrodite, male, or female morphs in a population (rectangle). Arrows represent evolutionary pathways between populations with different sexual systems. The first step in the pathway is the transition from a hermaphroditic to a gynodioecious population by the successful invasion of females (left-most set of arrows). The second step in the pathway is the transition from a gynodioecious to a dioecious population following the successful invasion of males and the disappearance of hermaphrodites (right-most arrows). Letters indicate different evolutionary paths.