Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2016, Article ID 7614683, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7614683
Research Article

Potential Germination Success of Exotic and Native Trees Coexisting in Central Spain Riparian Forests

Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Unidad Docente de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá, N-II, Km 33.6, P.O. Box 20, Alcalá de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain

Received 18 October 2015; Accepted 15 March 2016

Academic Editor: L. M. Chu

Copyright © 2016 Isabel Cabra-Rivas and Pilar Castro-Díez. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. van Kleunen, W. Dawson, D. Schlaepfer, J. M. Jeschke, and M. Fischer, “Are invaders different? A conceptual framework of comparative approaches for assessing determinants of invasiveness,” Ecology Letters, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 947–958, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. E. Drenovsky, A. Khasanova, and J. J. James, “Trait convergence and plasticity among native and invasive species in resource-poor environments,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 629–639, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. M. Richardson, P. Pyšek, M. Rejmánek, M. G. Barbour, F. Dane Panetta, and C. J. West, “Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions,” Diversity and Distributions, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 93–107, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. C. Barrett, “Why reproductive systems matter for the invasion biology of plants?” in Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton, D. Richardson, Ed., pp. 195–210, Wiley-Blackell, Oxford, UK, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. J. W. Burke and J. P. Grime, “An experimental study of plant community invasibility,” Ecology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 776–790, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. C. Muñoz and J. D. Ackerman, “Spatial distribution and performance of native and invasive Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) species in Puerto Rico: the anatomy of an invasion,” Biological Invasions, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1543–1558, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Hirsch, C. Wypior, H. von Wehrden, K. Wesche, D. Renison, and I. Hensen, “Germination performance of native and non-native Ulmus pumila populations,” NeoBiota, vol. 15, pp. 53–68, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. P. E. Hulme and C. W. Benkman, “Granivory,” in Plant Animal Interactions. An Evolutionary Approach, C. M. Herrera and O. Pellmyr, Eds., pp. 132–154, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. Fenner and K. Thompson, The Ecology of Seeds, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.
  10. G. Korbecka, P. G. L. Klinkhamer, and K. Vrieling, “Selective embryo abortion hypothesis revisited—a molecular approach,” Plant Biology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 298–310, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Ghazoul and A. Satake, “Nonviable seed set enhances plant fitness: the sacrificial sibling hypothesis,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 369–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. H. Janzen, “Seed predation by animals,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 465–492, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. N. Andersen, “How important is seed predation to recruitment in stable populations of long-lived perennials?” Oecologia, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 310–315, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Crawley, “Seed predators and plant population dynamics,” in Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, M. Fenner, Ed., pp. 157–191, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  15. V. Vibekke, I. Heuch, and V. Vandvik, “Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods,” Acta Oecologica, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 169–178, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. D. Bewley and M. Black, Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985.
  17. C. C. Baskin and J. M. Baskin, Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1998.
  18. M. Verdú and A. Traveset, “Early emergence enhances plant fitness: a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1385–1394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Masaka and K. Yamada, “Variation in germination character of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Leguminosae) seeds at individual tree level,” Journal of Forest Research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Constán-Nava and A. Bonet, “Genetic variability modulates the effect of habitat type and environmental conditions on early invasion success of Ailanthus altissima in Mediterranean ecosystems,” Biological Invasions, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2379–2392, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. G. Barrett, T. He, B. B. Lamont, and S. L. Krauss, “Temporal patterns of genetic variation across a 9-year-old aerial seed bank of the shrub Banksia hookeriana (Proteaceae),” Molecular Ecology, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 4169–4179, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. H. R. Lambers, J. S. Clark, and M. Lavine, “Implications of seed banking for recruitment of southern Appalachian woody species,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. E. Barnes, “Seed predation, germination and seedling establishment of Acacia erioloba in northern Botswana,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 541–554, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Philippi and J. Seger, “Hedging one's evolutionary bets, revisited,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 41–44, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. K. J. Ooi, “Seed bank persistence and climate change,” Seed Science Research, vol. 22, supplement 1, pp. S53–S60, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Braza and M. B. García, “Spreading recruitment over time to cope with environmental variability,” Plant Ecology, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 283–292, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. B. Lamont, S. W. Connell, and S. M. Bergl, “Seed bank and population dynamics of Banksia cuneata: the role of time, fire and moisture,” Botanical Gazette, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 114–122, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Chytrý, L. C. Maskell, J. Pino et al., “Habitat invasions by alien plants: a quantitative comparison among Mediterranean, subcontinental and oceanic regions of Europe,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 448–458, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Grupo Especialista en Invasiones Biológicas (GEIB), “TOP 20: las 20 especies exóticas invasoras más dañinas presentes en España,” GEIB Serie Técnica 2, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino, Madrid, Spain, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  30. DAISIE, Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe, Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheets, European Invasive Alien Species Gateway, 2012, http://www.europe-aliens.org.
  31. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), January 2013, http://physicsweb.org/articles/news/11/6/16/1.
  32. C. S. Elton, The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1958.
  33. M. A. Nuñez, D. Simberloff, and M. A. Relva, “Seed predation as a barrier to alien conifer invasions,” Biological Invasions, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1389–1398, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Castells, M. Morante, J. M. Blanco-Moreno, F. X. Sans, R. Vilatersana, and A. Blasco-Moreno, “Reduced seed predation after invasion supports enemy release in a broad biogeographical survey,” Oecologia, vol. 173, no. 4, pp. 1397–1409, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Blanco, M. Casado, M. Costa, R. Escribano, and M. García, Los Bosques Ibéricos: Una Interpretación Geobotánica, Planeta, Barcelona, Spain, 2005.
  36. M. Sanz-Elorza, E. Dana, and E. Sobrino, Atlas de las Plantas Alóctonas Invasoras en España, Dirección General para la Biodiversidad (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente), Madrid, Spain, 2004.
  37. I. Cabra-Rivas, P. Castro-Díez, and A. Saldaña, “Analysis of the riparian habitat invasion by three tree exotic species in Spain,” Ecosistemas, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 18–28, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. A. Prada and D. Arizpe, Riparian Tree and Shrub Propagation Handbook: An Aid to Riverine Restoration in the Mediterranean Region, Generalitat Valenciana, Valencia, Spain, 2008.
  39. S. Constán-Nava, A. Bonet, and L. Serra, “Efectos de la especie invasora Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle sobre la diversidad vegetal en bosques de ribera del LIC Serra de Mariola y Carrascal de la Font Roja,” Iberis, vol. 6, pp. 65–75, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  40. G. Bory and D. Clair-Maczulajtys, “Production, dissémination et polymorphisme des semences d’Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Simaroubaceae,” Revue Génerale de Botanique, vol. 88, pp. 297–311, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  41. C. K. Converse, Element Stewardship Abstract for Robinia pseudoacacia, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Va, USA, 1984.
  42. L. Thompson, “The functional ecology of seed banks,” in The Ecology of the Regeneration of Plant Communities, M. Fenner, Ed., pp. 231–258, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  43. N. L. Kota, R. E. Landenberger, and J. B. McGraw, “Germination and early growth of Ailanthus and tulip poplar in three levels of forest disturbance,” Biological Invasions, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 197–211, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Á. Cogolludo-Agustín, D. Agúndez, and L. Gil, “Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers,” Heredity, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 157–166, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. MAGRAMA, Real Decreto 630/2013, de 2 de Agosto, por el que se Regula el Catálogo Español de Especies Exóticas Invasoras, BOE-A-2013-8565, Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, 2013.
  46. C. A. Todzia and J. L. Panero, “A new species of Ulmus (Ulmaceae) from southern Mexico and a synopsis of the species in Mexico,” Brittonia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 343–347, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. E. Zalapa, J. Brunet, and R. P. Guries, “Patterns of hybridization and introgression between invasive Ulmus pumila (Ulmaceae) and native U. Rubra,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 1116–1128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Brouillet, F. Coursol, S. J. Meades et al., VASCAN, The Database of Vascular Plants of Canada, 2014, http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/.
  49. M. Chang Geng, “A provenance test of white elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in China,” Silvae Genetica, vol. 38, pp. 37–44, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  50. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA), Field Guide for Managing Siberian Elm in the Southwest, Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
  51. E. H. Toole and E. Brown, “Final results of the Duvel buried seed experiment,” Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 72, pp. 201–210, 1946. View at Google Scholar
  52. N. Hildebrand, Temperature and substrate effects on the juvenile establishment of the species Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Acer negundo L. [M.S. thesis], University of Greenwich, Greenwich, UK, 2006.
  53. R. Serrada, Apuntes de Repoblaciones Forestales, FUCOVASA, Madrid, Spain, 2000.
  54. M. Basbag, A. Aydin, and D. Ayzit, “The effect of different temperatures and durations on the dormancy breaking of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) seeds,” Notulae Scientia Biologicae, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 125–128, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  55. F. Tilki and E. Çiçek, “Effects of stratification, temperature and storage on germination in three provenances of Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa seeds,” Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 323–330, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Hothorn, F. Bretz, and P. Westfall, “Simultaneous inference in general parametric models,” Biometrical Journal, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 346–363, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  57. R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2013, http://www.R-project.org/.
  58. M. A. Kaproth and J. B. McGraw, “Seed viability and dispersal of the wind-dispersed invasive Ailanthus altissima in aqueous environments,” Forest Science, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 490–496, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Kowarik and M. von der Lippe, “Secondary wind dispersal enhances long-distance dispersal of an invasive species in urban road corridors,” NeoBiota, vol. 9, pp. 49–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. I. Säumel and I. Kowarik, “Propagule morphology and river characteristics shape secondary water dispersal in tree species,” Plant Ecology, vol. 214, no. 10, pp. 1257–1272, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. I. Kowarik and I. Säumel, “Biological flora of Central Europe: Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle,” Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 207–237, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Dulamsuren, M. Hauck, S. Nyambayar, D. Osokhjargal, and C. Leuschner, “Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga,” Acta Oecologica, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 563–572, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Tang, D.-M. Jiang, and X.-T. Lü, “Effects of exclosure management on Elm (Ulmus pumila) recruitment in Horqin Sandy Land, Northeastern China,” Arid Land Research and Management, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 109–117, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. van Staden, K. M. Kelly, and W. E. Bell, “The role of natural agents in the removal of coat-imposed dormancy in Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight et Arn. seeds,” Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. M. Richardson and R. L. Kluge, “Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: role in invasiveness and options for management,” Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 161–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. L. Fisher, W. A. Loneragan, K. Dixon, and E. J. Veneklaas, “Soil seed bank compositional change constrains biodiversity in an invaded species-rich woodland,” Biological Conservation, vol. 142, no. 2, pp. 256–269, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Gaertner, D. M. Richardson, and S. D. J. Privett, “Effects of alien plants on ecosystem structure and functioning and implications for restoration: insights from three degraded sites in South African fynbos,” Environmental Management, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 57–69, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. R. Gérard, J. F. Fernández-Manjarrés, P. Bertolino, J. Dufour, C. Raquin, and N. Frascaria-Lacoste, “New insights in the recognition of the European ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl as useful tools for forest management,” Annals of Forest Science, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 733–738, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. B. Piotto, G. Bartolini, F. Bussotti et al., “Fact sheets on the propagation of Mediterranean trees and shrubs from seed,” in Seed Propagation of Mediterranean Trees and Shrubs, B. Piotto and A. Di Noi, Eds., pp. 11–51, APAT, Rome, Italy, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  70. C. Draghici and I. V. Abrudan, “The effect of different stratification conditions on the germination of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and F. ornus L. seeds,” Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 283–287, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. Catalán-Bachiller, Semillas de Árboles y Arbustos Forestales, ICONA (Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación), Madrid, Spain, 1991.
  72. P. García-Fayos, J. Gulias, J. Martínez et al., Bases Ecológicas para la Recolección, Almacenamiento y Germinación de Semillas de Especies de Uso Forestal de la Comunidad Valenciana, Banc de Llavors Forestals (Consellería de Medi Ambient, Generalitat Valenciana), Valencia, Spain, 2001.
  73. F. J. R. Slansky, “Insect nutritional ecology as a basis for studying host plant resistance,” The Florida Entomologist, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 359–378, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. M. A. Aziz, M. ul Hasan, A. Ali, A. Suhail, and T. Sahi, “Role of different physico-chemical characters of okra as a host plant preference of Earias spp,” Pakistan Journal of Zoology, vol. 42, pp. 361–369, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  75. A. Gautier-Hion, “Seasonal variations of diet related to species and sex in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys,” The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 237–269, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. R. H. Richens, Elm, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983.
  77. R. M. Heisey, “Identification of an allelopathic compound from Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) and characterization of its herbicidal activity,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 192–200, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Kelbel, “Monitoring of carpophages of invasive and expansive wood species,” Journal of Forest Science, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 485–489, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Singh, “Effect of okra fruit blocks, seeds and pericarp on pest embryonic development of Earias vitella (Fab.) in relation to some phytochemicals of selected okra genotypes,” Proceedings: Animal Sciences, vol. 96, pp. 361–367, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  80. R. Sundararaj and B. V. David, “Influence of biochemical parameters of different hosts on the biology of Earias vittella (Fab.) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera),” Proceedings: Animal Sciences, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 329–332, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Fuentes and E. W. Schupp, “Empty seeds reduce seed predation by birds in Juniperus osteosperma,” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 823–827, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Verdú and P. García-Fayos, “The effect of deceptive fruits on predispersal seed predation by birds in Pistacia lentiscus,” Plant Ecology, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 245–248, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. F. Ramos-Ordoñez and M. C. Arizmendi, “Parthenocarpy, attractiveness and seed predation by birds in Bursera morelensis,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 757–762, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Perea, M. Venturas, and L. Gil, “Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e65573, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. Laguna, Flora Forestal Española, Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, Spain, 1883.
  86. J. C. López-Almansa and L. Gil, “Empty samara and parthenocarpy in Ulmus minor s.l. in Spain,” Silvae Genetica, vol. 52, no. 5-6, pp. 241–243, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. C. López-Almansa, E. C. Yeung, and L. Gil, “Abortive seed development in Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae),” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 145, no. 4, pp. 455–467, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Solla, M. Burón, S. Iglesias, and L. Gil, “Spanish program for the conservation and breeding of elms against DED,” in The Elms: Breeding, Conservation, and Disease Management, C. P. Dunn, Ed., pp. 295–303, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  89. J. C. López-Almansa, “Review. Reproductive ecology of riparian elms,” Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 17–27, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  90. N. González-Muñoz, P. Castro-Díez, and N. Fierro-Brunnenmeister, “Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture,” Environmental Management, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 764–773, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. G. R. Trimble, “Summaries of some silvical characteristics of several Appalachian hardwood trees,” General Technical Report NE-16, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, Broomall, Pa, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  92. Q. C. B. Cronk and J. L. Fuller, Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystems, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1995.
  93. A. Mathias and É. Kisdi, “Adaptive diversification of germination strategies,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 269, no. 1487, pp. 151–155, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus