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International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2016, Article ID 7924258, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7924258
Research Article

Seasonal Fluctuation of the Population and Characterization of Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Coastal Soils of Digha, West Bengal, India

Parasitology and Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India

Received 19 October 2015; Accepted 7 March 2016

Academic Editor: Panos V. Petrakis

Copyright © 2016 Syed Afrin Azmi and Soumendranath Chatterjee. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Seasonal fluctuation of the population of Bacillus spp. in the coastal soils of Digha, West Bengal, India, was determined and it has been found that, during summer, monsoon, and winter season, the Bacillus population density varied in the range of 0.01–0.236 × 106, 0.11–0.202 × 106, and 0.098–0.155 × 106, respectively. Two-way ANOVA, agglomerative hierarchial cluster (AHC) analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to determine the diversity of Bacillus spp. in both spatial and temporal aspects. During summer season, the population of Bacillus spp. reached a comparatively higher density than monsoon or winter. Spatial variation was also exhibited among the Bacillus spp. in different coastal villages. A total of 25 strains of Bacillus spp. (DSB1–DSB25) were isolated from the coastal soils of different village areas of Digha, during the study period. The isolates were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and biochemically. Colony morphology of each of the isolates was thoroughly studied. Biochemical tests along with fermentation tests, NaCl, pH, and temperature tolerance tests were done. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated Bacillus spp. against different standard antibiotics was also assessed. The study revealed that the coastal soils of Digha area were rich in different strains of Bacillus spp. showing significant differences in the morphophysiological and biochemical properties.