Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2018, Article ID 5193460, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5193460
Research Article

Impact of Livestock Encroachments and Tree Removal on Populations of Mountain Nyala and Menelik’s Bushbuck in Arsi Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

1School of Wildlife and Eco-Tourism, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
3Department of Biology, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Zerihun Girma; moc.oohay@57urez

Received 26 December 2017; Accepted 21 February 2018; Published 28 March 2018

Academic Editor: Daniel I. Rubenstein

Copyright © 2018 Zerihun Girma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. L. Pimm and P. Raven, “Extinction by numbers,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6772, pp. 843–845, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. M. Brooks, R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier et al., “Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity,” Conservation Biology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 909–923, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Wiegand, E. Revilla, and K. A. Moloney, “Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population dynamics,” Conservation Biology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 108–121, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. Mamo and A. Bekele, “Human and livestock encroachments into the habitat of Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia,” Tropical Ecology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 265–273, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Yosef, A. Addisu, and M. Girma, “Social organization in the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) population in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 103–111, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. A. Tadesse and B. P. Kotler, “Attitudes of local people towards the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in Munessa, Ethiopia,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 488–499, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Evangelista, P. Swartzinski, and R. Waltermire, “A Profile of the Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni, 2007),” http://www.africanindaba@co.za.
  8. A. Atickem, L. E. Loe, Ø. Langangen, E. K. Rueness, A. Bekele, and N. C. Stenseth, “Estimating population size and habitat suitability for mountain nyala in areas with different protection status,” Animal Conservation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 409–418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Atickem and L. E. Loe, “Livestock-wildlife conflicts in the Ethiopian highlands: Assessing the dietary and spatial overlap between mountain nyala and cattle,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 343–351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Kidane, “Wildlife management problems in Ethiopia,” Walia, vol. 8, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  11. T. Hundessa, Management Problems of Protected Areas in Ethiopia, World Heritage Fund, Paris, France, 1992.
  12. J. Kingdon, The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA, 1997.
  13. L. H. Brown, “Mammalia: Observations on the status, habitat and behaviour of the mountain nyala tragelaphus buxtoni in ethiopia,” Mammalia, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 545–597, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. W. Yalden and M. J. Largen, “The endemic mammals of Ethiopia,” Mammal Review, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 115–150, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Z. Girma, G. Chuyong, P. Evangelista, and Y. Mamo, “Habitat characterization and preferences of the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni, Lydekker 1910) and Menelik’s bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki, Neumann 1902) in Arsi Mountains National Park, south-eastern Ethiopia,” International Journal of Current Research, vol. 7, pp. 23074–23082, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  16. A. M. Atickem, Landscape genetics and behavioural ecology of mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in the Southern highlands of Ethiopia [Ph.D. thesis], University of Oslo, Oslo, 2013.
  17. IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources), “IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2012.2,” http://www.iucnredlist.org.
  18. T. Bekele, “Phytosociology and ecology of a humid Afromontane forest on the Central Plateau of Ethiopia,” Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. A. Stephens, C. A. D'Sa, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and N. Leader-Williams, “Impact of livestock and settlement on the large mammalian wildlife of Bale Mountains National Park, southern Ethiopia,” Biological Conservation, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 307–322, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Z. Girma, A. Bekele, and H. Graham, “Large mammals and mountain encroachments on mount Kaka and Hunkolo fragments, southeast Ethiopia,” Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 279–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Yazezew, Y. Mamo, and A. Bekele, “Population Ecology of Menelik’s bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki, Neumann, 1902) From Donkoro Forest Proposed National Park, Northern Ethiopia,” International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science, vol. 37, pp. 1–13, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  22. Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (EMoARD), Ethiopia’s agricultural sector policy and investment framework 2010-2020, EMoARD, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2010.
  23. G. Miehe and S. Miehe, Ericaceous forests and heathlands in the Bale Mountains of South Ethiopia-Ecology and mans impact , Stiftung Walderhaltung in Africa, Hamburg, Germany, 1994.
  24. K. Wesche, G. Miehe, and M. Kaeppell, “The significance of fire for afroalpine ericaceous vegetation,” Mountain Research and Development, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 340–347, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Johansson, T. Rooke, M. Fetene, and A. Granström, “Browser selectivity alters post-fire competition between Erica arborea and E. trimera in the sub-alpine heathlands of Ethiopia,” Plant Ecology, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 149–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. U. Johansson, M. Fetene, A. Malmer, and A. Granström, “Tending for cattle: Traditional fire management in ethiopian montane heathlands,” Ecology and Society, vol. 17, no. 3, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Tedla, “Protected areas management crises in Ethiopia,” Journal of Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, vol. 16, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. A. Tadesse and B. P. Kotler, “Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia,” Current Zoology, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 707–717, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Nigatu and M. Tadesse, “An ecological study of the vegetation of the Harenna,” SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science, vol. 12, pp. 63–93, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  30. D. Teketay, “Human impact on a natural montane forest in southeastern Ethiopia,” Mountain Research & Development, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 393–400, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. H. Evangelista, J. Norman III, L. Berhanu, S. Kumar, and N. Alley, “Predicting habitat suitability for the endemic mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in Ethiopia,” Wildlife Research, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 409–416, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. APEDO/ABRDP, “Arsi Zone Planning and Economic Development Office and Arsi-Bale Rural Development Project,” in Atlas of Arsi Zone, APEDO/ABRDP, Asella, Ethiopia, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  33. OFWI (Oromia Forest and Wildlife Enterprise), “Arsi Mountains National Park,” http://www.oromiaforest.gov.
  34. Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency (ENMA), Meteorological Data, ENMA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2015.
  35. Z. Girma, Habitat use, Diet and conservation of the mountain nyala and Meneliks bushbuck [Ph.D. thesis], University of Buea, Park, 2016.
  36. C. Sillero-Zubiri, Behavioural Ecology of Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis), Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. O. Hedberg, “Vegetation belts of the Eastern Africa,” Systematic Botany Tidsk, vol. 45, pp. 140–202, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Malcolm and P. Evangelista, The range and status of the mountain nyala, Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Department and Oromia Rural Land and Natural Resource Department, Addis Ababa, 2004.
  39. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Arc GIS software 10.1, ESRI, California, USA, 2012.
  40. Minitab Inc., Statistical package software Release 17, Minitab Inc. State College, New York, USA, 2013.
  41. B. Refera and A. Bekele, “Population status and structure of mountain nyala in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Mamo, M. A. Pinard, and A. Bekele, “Demography and dynamics of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia,” Current Zoology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 660–669, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus