Table of Contents
Indian Journal of Materials Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 682950, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/682950
Research Article

Nucleation Controlled Growth of Cadmium Oxalate Crystals in Agar Gel and Their Characterization

Shri V. S. Naik Arts, Commerce and Science College, Raver 45 508, India

Received 14 June 2013; Accepted 28 July 2013

Academic Editors: M. Jayachandran and F. Scarpa

Copyright © 2013 P. V. Dalal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Pactor, “The precipitation of alkaline-earth metal molybdate powders from aqueous solution. Crystal numbers, final morphology and sizes,” Kristall und Technik, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 729–735, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. K. Arora and T. Abraham, “Controlled nucleation of cadmium oxalate in silica hydrogel and characterization of grown crystals,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 851–857, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Dennis and H. K. Henisch, “Nucleation and growth of crystals in gels,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 263–266, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. N. V. Prasad, G. Prasad, T. Bhimasankaram, S. V. Suryanarayana, and G. S. Kumar, “Dielectric properties of cobalt doped cadmium oxalate crystals,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 639–643, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. I. Diaz-Guemes, A. S. Bhatti, and D. Dollimore, “The thermal decomposition of oxalates. part 21. The preparation and thermal decomposition of an oxy molybdenum(VI) oxalate,” Thermochimica Acta, vol. 106, pp. 125–132, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Okamoto and W. Brenner, Organic Semiconductors, Reinhold Publishing, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1964.
  7. W. B. Schaap and D. L. McMasters, “A Polarographic study of mixed-ligand complex formation, complexes of copper and cadmium with oxalate ion and ethylenediamine,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 83, no. 23, pp. 4699–4706, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  8. E. U. Ikhuoria, F. F. Okiemien, and A. I. Aigbodion, “Studies in the thermal stability of metal dicarboxylates,” Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, vol. 9, pp. 16–18, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  9. P. V. Dalal and K. B. Saraf, “Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar-agar gel,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 377–382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. N. F. Mott, “Metal-insulator transition,” Reviews of Modern Physics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 677–683, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. I. G. Austin and D. Elwell, “Magnetic semiconductors,” Contemporary Physics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 455–476, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. A. Gaffar and A. Abu El-Fadl, “Structural, electrical, dielectric and optical investigations of lithium iodate single crystals,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 1633–1643, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Kondo, “Spectral analysis of optical absorption near the fundamental edge in amorphous lead halides,” Physica Status Solidi A, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 529–537, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. B. L. Joesten and F. C. Brown, “Indirect optical absorption of AgCl-AgBr alloys,” Physical Review, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 919–927, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. F. C. Brown, T. Masumi, and H. H. Tippins, “Fine structure in the absorption edge of the silver halides,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 22, pp. 101–107, 1961. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. M. Chauhan and S. K. Arora, “Diamagnetic and photoabsorption characterisation of gel-grown cadmium oxalate single crystals,” Crystal Research and Technology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. Chauhan, 2013, http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/7346/10/10_chapter%204.pdf.
  18. A. M. E. Raj, D. D. Jayanthi, V. B. Jothy, M. Jayachandran, and C. Sanjeeviraja, “Crystal structure and thermal characterization of cadmium oxalate [CdC2O4 · 3H2O] and barium-doped cadmium oxalate [Ba0.5Cd0.5(C2O4)2 · 5H2O] single crystals grown in silica gel,” Inorganica Chimica Acta, vol. 362, no. 5, pp. 1535–1540, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. V. Dalal and K. B. Saraf, “Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 421–425, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. P. V. Dalal and K. B. Saraf, “Growth of barium oxalate crystals in agar-agar gel and their characterization,” Crystal Research and Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. A. M. E. Raj, D. D. Jayanthi, and V. B. Jothy, “Optimized growth and characterization of cadmium oxalate single crystals in silica gel,” Solid State Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 557–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. R. Shedam and A. V. Rao, “Nucleation and growth of CdC2O2 · 3H2O single crystals in silica gels,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 309–315, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. R. Shedam and A. V. Rao, “Effect of temperature on nucleation and growth of cadmium oxalate single crystals in silica gels,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 263–266, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. J. Nathalie and A. D. Louer, “The hydrogen-bonding network in rac-ammonium trans-2-carboxycyclohexanecarboxylate,” Acta Crystallographica, vol. 60, pp. 1012–1014, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. T. Abraham, Gel growth and characterization of cadmium oxalate trihydrate single crystals [Ph.D. thesis], S. P. University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, India, 1981.
  26. N. B. Colthup, L. H. Daly, and S. E. Wiberley, Introduction to Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
  27. A. L. Smith, Applied Infrared Spectroscopy, Holden-day, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 1977.
  28. R. L. Frost and M. L. Weier, “Thermal decomposition of humboldtine. A high resolution thermogravimetric and hot stage Raman spectroscopic study,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 277–291, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. S. Joshi, Crystal Growth and Characterization of some urinary crystals [Ph.D. thesis], Saurashtra University, Rajkot, India, 2001.
  30. K. V. Bangera and P. Mohanrao, “Growth and characterization of single crystals of Barium ammonium oxalate in silica hydrogel,” Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics, vol. 32, p. 871, 1994. View at Google Scholar