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International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 160129, 6 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Bulk Density on Emission Behavior of Soil at Microwave Frequencies

Microwave Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Raj Rishi Autonomous Government P.G. College, Alwar, Rajasthan 301001, India

Received 30 April 2011; Revised 18 October 2011; Accepted 1 December 2011

Academic Editor: Jean Pierre Wigneron

Copyright © 2011 V. K. Gupta and R. A. Jangid. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dielectric constant and dielectric loss ( and ) of different soil samples with bulk densities varying from 1.3 to 2.0 gm/cm3 are determined at a single microwave frequency 9.78 GHz and at temperature 37.0°C. Different bulk densities of same soil are achieved by filling the wave guide cell with an equal volume but a different mass of soil. Further, and of these soil samples are also estimated by semiempirical model and compared with the experimental results. The values of and increase as bulk density of the soil increases. In view of microwave remote sensing, the Fresnel reflectivity of soil is computed from the knowledge of the complex dielectric constant and the surface boundary condition. Using Kirchhoff’s reciprocity theorem the microwave emissivity is estimated from Fresnel reflectivity of the surface. It is observed that the microwave emission from the soil surface inhibits as bulk density of soil increases. Further, the roughness of soil surface has been taken into consideration in the emissivity computation and observed that the emissivity increases with increasing roughness of the soil surface.