Table of Contents
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology
Volume 2012, Article ID 256759, 8 pages
Research Article

Nonuniformly Spaced Linear Antenna Array Design Using Firefly Algorithm

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh

Received 31 October 2011; Revised 23 January 2012; Accepted 31 January 2012

Academic Editor: Ramon Gonzalo

Copyright © 2012 Mohammad Asif Zaman and Md. Abdul Matin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A nonuniformly spaced linear antenna array with broadside radiation characteristics is synthesized using firefly algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The objective of the work is to find the optimum spacing between the radiating antenna elements which will create a predefined arbitrary radiation pattern. The excitation amplitudes of all the antenna elements are assumed to be constant. The optimum spacing between the array elements are obtained using firefly algorithm. The minimum allowed distance between the antenna elements is defined in such a way that mutual coupling between the elements can be ignored. Numerical analysis is performed to calculate the far-field radiation characteristics of the array. Two numerical examples are shown to form two different desired predefined radiation patterns. The performance of the firefly algorithm and particle swarm optimization is compared in terms of convergence rate and global best solution achieved. The performances of the optimized nonuniformly spaced arrays are analyzed. Finally, contour plots of the radiated power from the optimized array in the horizontal plane and vertical plane in the far-field region are provided.