Table of Contents
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology
Volume 2014, Article ID 639457, 12 pages
Research Article

Application of Response Surface Methodology to Enhance Phenol Removal from Refinery Wastewater by Microwave Process

1Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 1 Ahmed El-Zomor Street, El-Zohour Region, Nasr City, Cairo 11727, Egypt
2Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Salahaddin-Hawler, 44002 SUH, Erbil, Iraq
3School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

Received 6 January 2014; Accepted 3 April 2014; Published 28 April 2014

Academic Editor: Tanmay Basak

Copyright © 2014 Sherif A. Younis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Phenol contaminated petroleum refinery wastewater presents a great threat on water resources safety. This study investigates the effect of microwave irradiation on removal of different concentrations of phenol in an attempt for petroleum refinery wastewater treatment. The obtained results show that the MW output power and irradiation time have a significant positive effect on the removal efficiency of phenol. The kinetic reaction is significantly affected by initial MW output power and initial phenol concentrations. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize and study the interaction effects of process parameters: MW output power, irradiation time, salinity, pH, and H2O2 concentration using central composite design (CCD). From the CCD design matrix, a quadratic model was considered as an ultimate model ( 2 = 0.75) and its adequacy was justified through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The overall reaction rates were significantly enhanced in the combined MW/H2O2 system as proved by RSM. The optimum values for the design parameters of the MW/H2O2 process were evaluated giving predicted phenol removal percentage of 72.90% through RSM by differential approximation and were confirmed by experimental phenol removal of 75.70% in a batch experiment at optimum conditions of 439 W MW power, irradiation time of 24.22 min, salinity of 574 mg/L, pH 5.10, and initial H2O2 concentration of 10% (v/v).