Table 1: Comparison of conversional rectangular patch antenna with various fractal slot iterations of antenna.

Iteration Resonating frequency (GHz) Number of higher harmonics Return loss (dB) VSWR Gain (dB) Radiation efficiency (%) Bandwidth of fundamental resonance frequency (%) higher harmonics Bandwidth of 2nd harmonics (%) Patch size (mm2) Size reduction (%)

0 2.42 1 −12.53 1.61 6.3 67.6 2.46 2.90 1725
1st 2.43 2 −13.44 1.54 3.3 55.4 3.27 2.64 5.08 983.25 43
2nd 2.42 2 −22 1.17 3.8 51.2 3.30 9.19 4.34 983.25 43
3rd 2.42 2 −27 1.2 4.16 51.5 3.27 2.29 4.93 983.25 43
3rd with H-DGS 2.45 0 −23.26 1.14 4.46 63.8 3.68 932 46