Table of Contents
International Journal of Navigation and Observation
Volume 2012, Article ID 127072, 16 pages
Review Article

GPS Vulnerability to Spoofing Threats and a Review of Antispoofing Techniques

Position Location and Navigation (PLAN) Group, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4

Received 24 February 2012; Accepted 29 May 2012

Academic Editor: Elena Lohan

Copyright © 2012 Ali Jafarnia-Jahromi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


GPS-dependent positioning, navigation, and timing synchronization procedures have a significant impact on everyday life. Therefore, such a widely used system increasingly becomes an attractive target for illicit exploitation by terrorists and hackers for various motives. As such, spoofing and antispoofing algorithms have become an important research topic within the GPS discipline. This paper will provide a review of recent research in the field of GPS spoofing/anti-spoofing. The vulnerability of GPS to a spoofing attack will be investigated and then different spoofing generation techniques will be discussed. After introducing spoofing signal model, a brief review of recently proposed anti-spoofing techniques and their performance in terms of spoofing detection and spoofing mitigation will be provided. Limitations of anti-spoofing algorithms will be discussed and some methods will be introduced to ameliorate these limitations. In addition, testing the spoofing/anti-spoofing methods is a challenging topic that encounters some limitations due to stringent emission regulations. This paper will also provide a review of different test scenarios that have been adopted for testing anti-spoofing techniques.