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International Journal of Navigation and Observation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 313527, 8 pages
Research Article

GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Signal Power Measurements: Statistical Analysis

1Position Location And Navigation (PLAN) Group, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4
2Department of Math Physics and Engineering, Calgary, Mount Royal University, AB, Canada T3E 6K6

Received 18 June 2012; Revised 14 September 2012; Accepted 15 September 2012

Academic Editor: Jinling Wang

Copyright © 2012 V. Dehghanian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A threat to GNSS receivers is posed by a spoofing transmitter that emulates authentic signals but with randomized code phase and Doppler values over a small range. Such spoofing signals can result in large navigational solution errors that are passed onto the unsuspecting user with potentially dire consequences. An effective spoofing detection technique is developed in this paper, based on signal power measurements and that can be readily applied to present consumer grade GNSS receivers with minimal firmware changes. An extensive statistical analysis is carried out based on formulating a multihypothesis detection problem. Expressions are developed to devise a set of thresholds required for signal detection and identification. The detection processing methods developed are further manipulated to exploit incidental antenna motion arising from user interaction with a GNSS handheld receiver to further enhance the detection performance of the proposed algorithm. The statistical analysis supports the effectiveness of the proposed spoofing detection technique under various multipath conditions.