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International Journal of Navigation and Observation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 897103, 7 pages
Research Article

The Use of Quick Response (QR) Codes in Landmark-Based Pedestrian Navigation

1Nottingham Geospatial Building, Nottingham Geospatial Institute, The University of Nottingham, Innovation Park, Triumph Road, Nottingham NG7 2TU, UK
2Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland

Received 19 November 2013; Revised 13 March 2014; Accepted 14 March 2014; Published 23 April 2014

Academic Editor: Woojin Chung

Copyright © 2014 Anahid Basiri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vehicle navigation systems usually simply function by calculating the shortest fastest route over a road network. In contrast, pedestrian navigation can have more diverse concerns. Pedestrians are not constrained to road/path networks; their route may involve going into buildings (where accurate satellite locational signals are not available) and they have different priorities, for example, preferring routes that are quieter or more sheltered from the weather. In addition, there are differences in how people are best directed: pedestrians noticing landmarks such as buildings, doors, and steps rather than junctions and sign posts. Landmarks exist both indoors and outdoors. A system has been developed that uses quick response (QR) codes affixed to registered landmarks allowing users to localise themselves with respect to their route and with navigational instructions given in terms of these landmarks. In addition, the system includes images of each landmark helping users to navigate visually in addition to through textual instructions and route maps. The system runs on a mobile device; the users use the device’s camera to register each landmark’s QR code and so update their position (particularly indoors) and progress through the route itinerary.