Table of Contents
International Journal of Navigation and Observation
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8047158, 12 pages
Research Article

Simulation of GNSS Availability in Urban Environments Using a Panoramic Image Dataset

1Remote Sensing and GIS, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, 58 Moo 9, Paholyothin Highway, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
2Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Sakpod Tongleamnak;

Received 4 August 2016; Revised 7 December 2016; Accepted 28 December 2016; Published 26 January 2017

Academic Editor: David Akopian

Copyright © 2017 Sakpod Tongleamnak and Masahiko Nagai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning in urban environments is hindered by poor satellite availability because there are many man-made and natural objects in urban environments that obstruct satellite signals. To evaluate the availability of GNSS in cities, this paper presents a software simulation of GNSS availability in urban areas using a panoramic image dataset from Google Street View. Photogrammetric image processing techniques are applied to reconstruct fisheye sky view images and detect signal obstacles. Two comparisons of the results from the simulation and real world observation in Bangkok and Tokyo are also presented and discussed for accuracy assessment.