Table of Contents
International Journal of Oceanography
Volume 2011, Article ID 950838, 4 pages
Research Article

Noise Model Analysis and Estimation of Effect due to Wind Driven Ambient Noise in Shallow Water

1Department of ECE, SSN College of Engineering, Tamilnadu, Chennai 603110, India
2Department of Instrumentation Engineering, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044, India

Received 1 June 2011; Revised 27 September 2011; Accepted 28 September 2011

Academic Editor: Robert Frouin

Copyright © 2011 S. Sakthivel Murugan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Signal transmission in ocean using water as a channel is a challenging process due to attenuation, spreading, reverberation, absorption, and so forth, apart from the contribution of acoustic signals due to ambient noises. Ambient noises in sea are of two types: manmade (shipping, aircraft over the sea, motor on boat, etc.) and natural (rain, wind, seismic, etc.), apart from marine mammals and phytoplanktons. Since wind exists in all places and at all time: its effect plays a major role. Hence, in this paper, we concentrate on estimating the effects of wind. Seven sets of data with various wind speeds ranging from 2.11 m/s to 6.57 m/s were used. The analysis is performed for frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. It is found that a linear relationship between noise spectrum and wind speed exists for the entire frequency range. Further, we developed a noise model for analyzing the noise level. The results of the empirical data are found to fit with results obtained with the aid of noise model.