Table of Contents
International Journal of Oceanography
Volume 2013, Article ID 482451, 6 pages
Research Article

Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

Centre of Ocean Research, Conservation & Advances (ORCA), Division of Research, Industrial Linkage, Community Network & Alumni, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia

Received 4 December 2012; Revised 12 February 2013; Accepted 13 May 2013

Academic Editor: Heinrich Hühnerfuss

Copyright © 2013 Jamil Tajam and Mohd Lias Kamal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87 μg/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45 μg/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9 μg/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69 μg/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd () followed by Zn (), Pb (), and lastly, Co (). Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.