Table of Contents
International Journal of Oceanography
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 198686, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/198686
Research Article

Ocean Circulation and Water Mass Characteristics around the Galápagos Archipelago Simulated by a Multiscale Nested Ocean Circulation Model

1Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, USA
2Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33129-1098, USA
3Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33129-1026, USA
4Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403-5606, USA
5National Ocean Service, NOAA, Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services, Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281, USA

Received 29 September 2013; Accepted 12 December 2013; Published 11 February 2014

Academic Editor: Lakshmi Kantha

Copyright © 2014 Yanyun Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Bustamante, K. J. Collins, and R. Bensted-Smith, “Biodiversity conservation in the Galápagos Marine Reserve,” Entomologie, vol. 68, pp. 45–52, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Jennings, A. S. Brierley, and J. W. Walker, “The inshore fish assemblages of the Galapagos archipelago,” Biological Conservation, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. R. Stevenson and B. A. Taft, “New evidence of Equatorial Undercurrent east of the Galápagos Islands,” Journal of Marine Research, vol. 29, pp. 103–115, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  4. J. A. Knauss, “Further measurements and observations of the Cromwell Current,” Journal of Marine Research, vol. 24, pp. 205–240, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. B. Karnauskas, R. Murtugudde, and A. J. Busalacchi, “The effect of the Galápagos Islands on the equatorial Pacific cold tongue,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1266–1281, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Jr. Christensen, “Observations of the Cromwell current near the Galápagos Islands,” Deep-Sea Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  7. J. M. Steger, C. A. Collins, and P. C. Chu, “Circulation in the Archipielago de Colon (Galapagos Islands), November, 1993,” Deep-Sea Research, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1093–1114, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. T. Houvenaghel, “Oceanographic setting of the Galápagos Islands,” in Key Environments: Galápagos, R. Perry, Ed., pp. 43–54, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  9. G. Feldman, D. Clark, and D. Halpern, “Satellite color observations of the phytoplankton distribution in the eastern equatorial pacific during the 1982-1983 El Niño,” Science, vol. 226, no. 4678, pp. 1069–1071, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Feldman, “Patterns of phytoplankton production around the Galápagos Islands,” in Tidal Mixing and Plankton Dynamics, M. J. Bowman, R. T. Barber, and C. N. K. Mooers, Eds., Lecture Notes on Coastal and Esutarine Studies, pp. 77–106, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. P. Hayes, “Sea Level and Near Surface Temperature Variability at the Galapagos Islands, 1979-83,” in El Niño en Las IsLas Galápagos: El Evento de 1982-1983, pp. 49–81, Fundación Charles Darwin para los Islas Galápagos, Quito, Ecuador, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. M. Palacios, “Seasonal patterns of sea-surface temperature and ocean color around the Galápagos: regional and local influences,” Deep-Sea Research, vol. 51, no. 1–3, pp. 43–57, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. W. Glynn and J. S. Ault, “A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region,” Coral Reefs, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Riedinger, M. Steinitz-Kannan, W. M. Last, and M. Brenner, “A ~6100 14C yr record of El Niño activity from the Galápagos Islands,” Journal of Paleolimnology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. T. Rodbell, G. O. Seltzer, D. M. Anderson, M. B. Abbott, D. B. Enfield, and J. H. Newman, “An asymptotically equal to 15,000-Year Record of El Niño-Driven Alluviation in Southwestern Ecuador,” Science, vol. 283, no. 5401, pp. 516–519, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. P. Chavez, P. G. Strutton, G. E. Friederich et al., “Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997-98 El Nino,” Science, vol. 286, no. 5447, pp. 2126–2131, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. J. Brentnall, The impact of the Galápagos Islands on the dynamics of the equatorial east Pacific [Ph.D. thesis], University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 1999.
  18. C. Eden and A. Timmerman, “The influence of the Galápagos Islands on tropical temperatures, currents and the generation of tropical instability waves,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, no. 15, Article ID L15308, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Cravatte, G. Madec, T. Izumo, C. Menkes, and A. Bozec, “Progress in the 3-D circulation of the eastern equatorial Pacific in a climate ocean model,” Ocean Modelling, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 28–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. B. Karnauskas, G. C. Johnson, and R. Murtugudde, “An equatorial ocean bottleneck in global climate models,” Journal of Climate, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 343–349, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Bleck, “An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates,” Ocean Modelling, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 55–88, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. P. Chassignet, L. T. Smith, G. R. Halliwell, and R. Bleck, “North Atlantic Simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): impact of the vertical coordinate choice, reference density, and thermobaricity,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 33, pp. 2504–2526, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  23. G. R. Halliwell, “Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM),” Ocean Modelling, vol. 7, no. 3-4, pp. 285–322, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. Liu, L. Xie, J. M. Morrison, and D. Kamykowski, “Dynamic downscaling of the impact of climate change on the ocean circulation in the Galapagos Archipelago,” Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2013, Article ID 837432, 18 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Levitus and T. Boyer, “World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 4: Temperature,” NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Levitus, R. Burgett, and T. Boyer, “World Ocean Atlas 1994, Volume 3: Salinity,” NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, US Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins et al., “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 247–267, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. R. Cayan, “Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: driving the sea surface temperature,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 859–881, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Cayan, “Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern ocean: the connection to monthly atmospheric circulation,” Journal of Climate, vol. 5, pp. 354–369, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  30. W. G. Large, J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, “Oceanic vertical mixing: a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 363–403, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. E. Trenberth, “The Definition of El Niño,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 78, no. 12, pp. 2771–2777, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. A. Schaeffer, J. M. Morrison, D. Kamykowski et al., “Phytoplankton biomass distribution and identification of productive habitats within the Galapagos Marine Reserve by MODIS, a surface acquisition system, and in-situ measurements,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 3044–3054, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Wyrtki and B. Kilonsky, “Mean water and current structure during the Hawaii-to-Tahiti shuttle experiment,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 14, pp. 242–254, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  34. W. V. Sweet, J. M. Morrison, Y. Liu et al., “Tropical instability wave interactions within the Galápagos Archipelago,” Deep-Sea Research, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 1217–1229, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Wolanski and S. Spagnol, “Environmental degradation by mud in tropical estuaries,” Regional Environmental Change, vol. 1, no. 3-4, pp. 152–162, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Ghil and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, “Data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography,” Advances in Geophysics, vol. 33, pp. 141–266, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. B. Karnauskas, R. Murtugudde, and A. J. Busalacchi, “The effect of the Galápagos Islands on ENSO in forced ocean and hybrid coupled models,” Journal of Physical Oceanography, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 2519–2534, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. J. Small, T. Campbell, J. Teixeira et al., “Air-sea interaction in the Ligurian sea: assessment of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model using in situ data from LASIE07,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 1785–1808, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus