International Journal of Peptides / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Effect of Ghrelin on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: Therapeutic Implications

Table 1

Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose-insulin homeostasis in different species and metabolic situations. IV: intravenous; O: oral.

SpeciesTreatmentDoseFood before experimentTreatment durationPlasma glucose or GIRPlasma insulinReference

Health humans1 IV AG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kgFasting overnight3 hoursEnhancedDecreased[65]

Health humans1 IV AG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection3.3โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kgFasting overnight3 hoursEnhancedDecreased[68]

Health humans1 IV AG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhancedDecreased [67, 81]

Health humans1 IV AG injection + O-GTT versus O-GTT1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kg + 100โ€‰g glucoseFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeNot change [81]
1 IV AG injection + FFA versus FFA1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kg + 10% FFAFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeDecreased
1 IV AG injection + arginine versus arginine1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kg + 0.5โ€‰g arginine/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhancedDecreased

Health humans1 IV AG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhancedDecreased [67]
1 IV UAG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g UAG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeNot change
1 IV AG injection + UAG versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kg + 1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g UAG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeNot change

Health humans IV AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion5โ€‰pmol AG/kg/minFasting overnight3 hoursEnhancedEnhanced [77]

Health humansIV AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion
Both with pancreatic clamp + hyperinsulinemic-euglicemic clamp + glucose adjustable
5โ€‰pmol AG/kg/minFasting overnight5 hoursDuring clamp GIR diminished with ghrelinNot change [71]

Hypopituitary humans1 IV AG or UAG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG or UAG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhancedNot change [82]
1 IV AG + UAG injection versus 1 IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kg + 1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g UAG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeDiminished

Hypopituitary humansIV AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion
Both with hyperinsulinemic-euglicemic clamp
5โ€‰pmol AG/kg/minFasting overnight5 hoursBasal period enhanced, during clamp GIR diminishedNot change[78]

Gastrectomized humansIV AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion
Both with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp
5โ€‰pmol AG/kg/minFasting overnight5 hoursDiminished GIRNot change [80]

IV AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion
Both with IV-GTT infusion
1โ€‰ng AG/kg/h + 13.3โ€‰mg glucose/kg/min24-hour fasting40 minutesNot changeNot change
Normal ratsIP AG infusion versus IV placebo infusion
Both with IV-GTT infusion
1โ€‰ng AG/kg/h + 13.3โ€‰mg glucose/kg/min24-hour fasting40 minutesEnhancedDiminished [70]
IV AG infusion versus IP placebo infusion
Both with IP-GTT infusion
1โ€‰ng AG/kg/h + 13.3โ€‰mg glucose/kg/min24-hour fasting40 minutesNot changeNot change
IP AG infusion versus IP placebo infusion
Both with IP-GTT infusion
1โ€‰ng AG/kg/h + 13.3โ€‰mg glucose/kg/min24-hour fasting40 minutesEnhancedDiminished

Normal rats1 IV UAG injection + IV-GTT versus IV-GTT30โ€‰nmol UAG/kg + 1โ€‰g glucose/kgFasting overnight50 minutesNot changeEnhanced [83]
1 IV AG injection + IV-GTT versus IV-GTT30โ€‰nmol UAG/kg + 1โ€‰g glucose/kgFasting overnight50 minutesNot changeNot change

Rats with hepatic vagotomyIP AG infusion versus IP placebo infusion
Both with IP-GTT infusion
1โ€‰ng AG/kg//h +13.3โ€‰mg glucose/kg/min24-hour fasting40 minutesNot changeNot change [70]

Mice ddY1 IP AG injection versus 1 IP placebo injection
Both with IP-GTT
1 and 10โ€‰nmol AG/kg + 1โ€‰g glucose/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhancedDecreased [58]
1 IP AG injection versus 1 IP placebo injection1โ€‰nmol/kgFasting overnight2 hoursEnhanced

C57BL/6J mice1 IV AG injection + IV-GTT versus IV-GTT50โ€‰nmol AG/kg + 1g/kg3-hour fasting50 minutesNot changeDiminished[84]

GH-deficient little mice1 IP AG injection versus 1 IP placebo injection1โ€‰nmol AG/kgFasting overnight30 minutesEnhanced [58]

Obese humans1 IV AG injection versus IV placebo injection1โ€‰ ๐œ‡ g AG/kgFasting overnight2 hoursNot changeNot change[72]