International Journal of Peptides / 2010 / Article / Tab 5

Review Article

Effect of Ghrelin on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: Therapeutic Implications

Table 5

Glucose and insulin levels in GHSR-, ghrelin-, and double-knockout animals.

Null miceTreatmentDoseFood before/during experimentMeasurement blood samplesPlasma glucose levelsPlasma insulin levelsReference

GhrelinKO versus wildtypeSCD 4–20 weeks oldEndpointNot changeNot change[35]

GhrelinKO versus wildtypeSCD 4–10 weeks of ageEndpointNot changeNot change [103]

GhrelinIP-GTT, KO versus wildtype2 g glucose/kgSCD, fastedTime course-2 hoursDiminishedEnhanced [91]
KO versus wildtypeSCD, fedEndpointEndpointNot change
KO HDF versus KO SCDHFD 8–12 weeks oldEndpointNot changeEnhanced
IP-GTT, KO HFD versus KO SCD2 g glucose/kgHFD 8–12 weeks oldTime course-2 hoursNot changeEnhanced

GhrelinIP-GTT, KO versus wildtype2.5 g glucose/kgSCD 8-week oldTime course-2 hoursDiminishedEnhanced [36]

GhrelinKO versus wildtypeSCD, 6 hours fastEndpointNot changeNot change [37]

AG versus saline2.5 g glucose/kg + 1 IP injection of 150 nmol AG/kgSCD 8-week old, 18 h fastTime course-2 hoursEnhancedDiminished [36]
ITT, KO versus wildtype0.75 U/kgSCD 8-week old, 8h fastTime course-2.5 hoursDiminished
GhrelinHyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, KO versus wildtypeSCD 8-week oldGIR enhanced during clamp
KO versus wildtypeSCD 12-week oldEndpointNot changeNot change
KO.ob/ob versus wildtype.ob/obSCD 12-week oldEndpointDiminishedEnhanced
KO.ob/ob versus wildtype.ob/obSCD 12-week old, 24 hours fastEndpointDiminishedNot change

GhrelinIP-GTT, KO versus wildtype2 g glucose/kgSCD, 6 hours fastTime course-2 hoursNot changeNot change [37]
ITT, KO versus wildtype1 U/kgSCD, 6 hours fastTime course-2 hoursNot changeNot change

GhrelinO-GTT, KO DIO versus wildtype DIO1 g glucose/kgHFD 8–23 weeks old, 16 hours fastTime course-2 hoursNot changeDiminished[33]

GhrelinKO versus wildtype10-week SCD + 40 days on 50% caloric restriction with SCDTime course every 2 days2–16 day diminished[34]

KO DIO versus wildtype DIOHFD 8–23 weeks oldEndpointdiminishedDiminished
IPGTT, KO DIO versus wildtype DIO1 g glucose/kgHFD 8–23 weeks old, 16 hours fastedTime course-2 hoursNot changeDiminished [33]

GhrelinHyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, KO DIO versus wildtype DIO10 mU insulin/kg + constant infused insulin 5 mU/kg/min + infused 20% glucoseHFD 8–23 weeks old, 16 hours fastTime course-1.5 hoursGIR enhanced
Hyperglycemic clamp KO DIO versus wildtype DIO20% glucose at rates that stabilized blood glucose at 300  mg/dlHFD 8–23 weeks old, 16 hours fastedTime course-1.5 hoursDiminished
KO versus wildtype24-week SCDEndpointNot changeNot change
KO versus wildtype24-week SCD/18 h-fastingEndpointDiminishedDiminished
GHSRKO versus wildtype10-week SCD + 40 days on 50% caloric restriction with SCDTime course every two days2–28 day diminished[34]
KO versus wildtype14-week SCD +10-week HF + 18 h-fastingEndpointNot changeNot change
KO versus wildtype14-week SCD +10-week HFEndpointNot changeNot change

IP-GTT KO versus wildtype2 g glucose/kgSCD, 6 hours-fastingTime course 2 hoursNot changeNot change [37]
GHSRITT KO versus wildtype1 U/kgSCD, 6 hours-fastingTime course 2 hoursNot changeNot change
KO versus wildtypeSCD, 6 hours-fastingEndpointNot changeNot change

GHSRKO versus wildtypeSCD 4–19 weeks oldEndpointDiminishedDiminished [104]

GHSRKO versus wildtypeSCD 8-week oldEndpointDiminishedDiminished [105]

Ghrelin + GHSRIP-GTT dKO versus wildtype2 g glucose/kgSCD, 6 hours-fastingTime course-2 hoursNot changeNot change [37]
dKO versus wildtypeSCD, 6 hours-fastingEndpointNot changeNot change
ITT dKO versus wildtype1 U/kgSCD, 6 hours-fastingTime course-2 hoursNot changeNot change