Table of Contents
International Journal of Peptides
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 260346, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/260346
Review Article

A Systematic Review to Investigate Whether Angiotensin-(1-7) Is a Promising Therapeutic Target in Human Heart Failure

1Hull York Medical School, Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, Kingston upon Hull HU16 5JQ, UK
2Department of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Studies, Hull and East Yorkshire Medical Research and Teaching Centre, Daisy Building, Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, Kingston upon Hull HU16 5JQ, UK

Received 1 May 2013; Accepted 29 July 2013

Academic Editor: Suhn Hee Kim

Copyright © 2013 Vincent C. H. Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, T. M. Brown et al., “Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics-2010 update: a report from the american heart association,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. e46–e215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. X. Dallas and American Heart Association, Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update, American Heart Association, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2008.
  3. P. A. McCullough, E. F. Philbin, J. A. Spertus, S. Kaatz, K. R. Sandberg, and W. D. Weaver, “Confirmation of a heart failure epidemic: findings from the resource utilization among congestive heart failure (REACH) study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 60–69, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. B. Croft, W. H. Giles, R. A. Pollard, N. L. Keenan, M. L. Casper, and R. F. Anda, “Heart failure survival among older adults in the United States: a poor prognosis for an emerging epidemic in the Medicare population,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 505–510, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Health Care Financing Review: Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement, Table 5. 5: Discharges, Total Days of Care, and Program Payments for Medicare Beneficiaries Discharged from Short-Stay Hospitals, by Principal Diagnoses Within Major Diagnostic Classifications (MDCs): Calendar Year 2006, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2005, http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicareMedicaid StatSupp/.
  6. D. Levy, S. Kenchaiah, M. Glarson et al., “Long-term trends in the incidence of and survival with heart failure,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 18, pp. 1397–1402, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. M. Dunlay, M. M. Redfield, S. A. Weston et al., “Hospitalizations after heart failure diagnosis. A community perspective,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 18, pp. 1695–1702, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. J. Goldberg, J. Ciampa, D. Lessard, T. E. Meyer, and F. A. Spencer, “Long-term survival after heart failure: a contemporary population-based perspective,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 490–496, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. M. Ferrario and S. N. Iyer, “Angiotensin-(1-7): a bioactive fragment of the renin-angiotensin system,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 78, no. 1–3, pp. 13–18, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. M. Ferrario, “Angiotensin-(1-7) and antihypertensive mechanisms,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 278–283, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. A. S. Santos, A. C. Simoes e Silva, C. Maric et al., “Angiotensin-(1-7) is an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor Mas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 8258–8263, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. S. Zisman, R. S. Keller, B. Weaver et al., “Increased angiotensin-(1-7)-forming activity in failing human heart ventricles: evidence for upregulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme homologue ACE2,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 14, pp. 1707–1712, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. J. Campbell, C. J. Zeitz, M. D. Esler, and J. D. Horowitz, “Evidence against a major role for angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) in angiotensin peptide metabolism in the human coronary circulation,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1971–1976, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Keidar, M. Kaplan, and A. Gamliel-Lazarovich, “ACE2 of the heart: from angiotensin I to angiotensin (1-7),” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 463–469, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. M. Ferrario, M. C. Chappell, E. A. Tallant, K. B. Brosnihan, and D. I. Diz, “Counterregulatory actions of angiotensin-(1-7),” Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 535–541, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. A. Calò, S. Schiavo, P. A. Davis et al., “ACE2 and angiotensin 1-7 are increased in a human model of cardiovascular hyporeactivity: pathophysiological implications,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 472–477, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Mercure, A. Yogi, G. E. Callera et al., “Angiotensin(1-7) blunts hypertensive cardiac remodeling by a direct effect on the heart,” Circulation Research, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1319–1326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Ueda, S. Masumori-Maemoto, K. Ashino et al., “Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates vasoconstriction evoked by angiotensin II but not by noradrenaline in man,” Hypertension, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 998–1001, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Wilsdorf, J. V. Gainer, L. J. Murphey, D. E. Vaughan, and N. J. Brown, “Angiotensin-(1-7) does not affect vasodilator or TPA responses to bradykinin in human forearm,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1136–1140, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. T. Schiavone, R. A. S. Santos, K. B. Brosnihan, M. C. Khosla, and C. M. Ferrario, “Release of vasopressin from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system by angiotensin-(1-7) heptapeptide,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 4095–4098, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. S. Santos, M. J. Campagnole-Santos, and S. P. Andrade, “Angiotensin-(1-7): an update,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 91, no. 1–3, pp. 45–62, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Heitsch, S. Brovkovych, T. Malinski, and G. Wiemer, “Angiotensin-(1-7)-stimulated nitric oxide and superoxide release from endothelial cells,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 72–76, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Li, M. C. Chappell, C. M. Ferrario, and K. B. Brosnihan, “Angiotensin-(1-7) augments bradykinin-induced vasodilation by competing with ACE and releasing nitric oxide,” Hypertension, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 394–400, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. J. Trachte, K. Meixner, C. M. Ferrario, and M. C. Khosla, “Prostaglandin production in response to angiotensin-(1-7) in rabbit isolated vasa deferentia,” Prostaglandins, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 385–394, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Jaiswal, E. A. Tallant, D. I. Diz, M. C. Khosla, and C. M. Ferrario, “Subtype 2 angiotensin receptors mediate prostaglandin synthesis in human astrocytes,” Hypertension, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1115–1120, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. B. Brosnihan, P. Li, and C. M. Ferrario, “Angiotensin-(1-7) dilates canine coronary arteries through kinins and nitric oxide,” Hypertension, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 523–528, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. I. Porsti, A. T. Bara, R. Busse, and M. Hecker, “Release of nitric oxide by angiotensin-(1-7) from porcine coronary endothelium: implications for a novel angiotensin receptor,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 652–654, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. I. F. Benter, C. M. Ferrario, M. Morris, and D. I. Diz, “Antihypertensive actions of angiotensin-(1-7) in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 269, no. 1, part 2, pp. H313–H319, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Fernandes, Z. B. Fortes, D. Nigro, R. C. A. Tostes, R. A. S. Santos, and M. H. Catelli de Carvalho, “Potentiation of bradykinin by angiotensin-(1-7) on arterioles of spontaneously hypertensive rats studied in vivo,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 2, part 2, pp. 703–709, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. D. Paula, C. V. Lima, M. C. Khosla, and R. A. S. Santos, “Angiotensin-(1-7) potentiates the hypotensive effect of bradykinin in conscious rats,” Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 6, part 2, pp. 1154–1159, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. P. Davie and J. J. V. McMurray, “Effect of angiotensin-(1-7) and bradykinin in patients with heart failure treated with an ACE inhibitor,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 457–460, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Batlle Perales, F. Perez-Villa, A. Lazaro et al., “The Ang(1-7) mas receptor expression is increased in myocardial tissue from heart failure patients that are in a highly active remodelling stage,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 8, p. ii813, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  33. C. M. Ferrario, N. Martell, C. Yunis et al., “Characterization of angeotensin-(1-7) in the urine of normal and essential hypertensive subjects,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 137–146, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. J. M. Roks, P. P. Van Geel, Y. M. Pinto et al., “Angiotensin-(1-7) is a modulator of the human renin-angiotensin system,” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 296–301, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Pan, C. Wen, and C. Lin, “Interplay of angiotensin II and angiotensin(1-7) in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases of human cardiocytes,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 599–612, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. O. Sampaio, C. H. De Castro, R. A. S. Santos, E. L. Schiffrin, and R. M. Touyz, “Angiotensin-(1-7) counterregulates angiotensin II signaling in human endothelial cells,” Hypertension, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1093–1098, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Rajendran, Y. Y. Chirkov, D. J. Campbell, and J. D. Horowitz, “Angiotensin-(1-7) enhances anti-aggregatory effects of the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 459–463, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Peltonen, J. Näpänkangas, P. Ohtonen et al., “(Pro)renin receptors and angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis in human aortic valve stenosis,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. F. Christofi, S. Wijetunge, P. S. Sever, and A. D. Hughes, “Expression and function of the tissue-renin-angiotensin system in human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 87, p. S60, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  40. W. O. Sampaio, R. A. S. Dos Santos, R. Faria-Silva, L. T. Da Mata Machado, E. L. Schiffrin, and R. M. Touyz, “Angiotensin-(1-7) through receptor Mas mediates endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation via Akt-dependent pathways,” Hypertension, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 185–192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Lin, C. Pan, C. Wen, T. Yang, and T. Kuan, “Regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme II by angiotensin peptides in human cardiofibroblasts,” Peptides, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1334–1340, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Schindler, K. B. Brosnihan, C. M. Ferrario et al., “Comparison of inhibitory effects of irbesartan and atorvastatin treatment on the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in veins: a randomized double-blind crossover trial in healthy subjects,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 112–120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Rajendran, Y. Y. Chirkov, and J. D. Horowitz, “Potentiation of platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide by angiotensin-(1-7) is associated with suppression of superoxide release,” Platelets, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 158–164, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Ueda, S. Masumori-Maemoto, A. Wada, M. Ishii, K. B. Brosnihan, and S. Umemura, “Angiotensin(1-7) potentiates bradykinin-induced vasodilatation in man,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2001–2009, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. M. Gironacci, H. P. Adamo, G. Corradi, R. A. Santos, P. Ortiz, and O. A. Carretero, “Angiotensin (1-7) induces mas receptor internalization,” Hypertension, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 176–181, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Luque, P. Martin, N. Martell, C. Fernandez, K. B. Brosnihan, and C. M. Ferrario, “Effects of captopril related to increased levels of prostacyclin and angiotensin-(1-7) in essential hypertension,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 799–805, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. Hayashi, K. Yamamoto, M. Ohishi et al., “The counterregulating role of ACE2 and ACE2-mediated angiotensin 1-7 signaling against angiotensin II stimulation in vascular cells,” Hypertension Research, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1182–1185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. S. Zisman, G. E. Meixell, M. R. Bristow, and C. C. Canver, “Angiotensin-(1-7) formation in the intact human heart: in vivo dependence on angiotensin II as substrate,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 14, pp. 1679–1681, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. E. Gallagher and E. A. Tallant, “Inhibition of human lung cancer cell growth by angiotensin-(1-7),” Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2045–2052, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Pignone, A. Del Rosso, K. B. Brosnihan et al., “Reduced circulating levels of angiotensin-(1-7) in systemic sclerosis: a new pathway in the dysregulation of endothelial-dependent vascular tone control,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1305–1310, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. C. S. E. Silva, J. S. S. Diniz, A. Regueira Filho, and R. A. S. Santos, “The renin angiotensin system in childhood hypertension: selective increase of angiotensin-(1-7) in essential hypertension,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. C. Simões E Silva, J. S. S. Diniz, R. M. Pereira, S. V. B. Pinheiro, and R. A. S. Santos, “Circulating renin angiotensin system in childhood chronic renal failure: marked increase of angiotensin-(1-7) in end-stage renal disease,” Pediatric Research, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 734–739, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Nickenig, G. Geisen, H. Vetter, and A. Sachinidis, “Characterization of angiotensin receptors on human skin fibroblasts,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 217–222, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Anton, D. C. Merrill, L. A. A. Neves, and K. B. Brosnihan, “Angiotensin-(1-7) inhibits in vitro endothelial cell tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through the AT1-7 receptor,” Endocrine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 212–218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. L. Villalobos, T. Romacho, E. Cercas, E. Palacios, C. Sanchez Ferrer, and C. Peir, “The angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in human vascular smooth muscle cells,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 66, p. S40, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  56. A. C. Montezano, H. Yusuf, R. A. Santos, C. H. Castro, and R. M. Touyz, “Angiotensin 1-7 attenuates growth and inflammation induced by ET-1 in human endothelial cells-Crosstalk between mas and ETB receptors,” Hypertension, vol. 56, no. 5, p. e144, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  57. T. Peltonen, J. Napankangas, P. Ohtonen et al., “Defining local renin-angiotensin system in human aortic valve stenosis: gene-expression of ACE2 and mas receptor in stenotic valves,” Cardiology, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 281–282, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  58. Y. Zhiming, “A study on effects of Ang II and Ang-(107) on cholesterol efflux in THP-1 human macrophages,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 2, p. e139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. M. Vzquez-Bella, S. Valleja, V. Azcutia et al., “The role of the angiotensin-(1-7)/receptor Mas axis in endothelial dysfunction,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology A, vol. 31, supplement 6, p. 140, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  60. R. A. S. Santos, K. B. Brosnihan, D. W. Jacobsen, P. E. DiCorleto, and C. M. Ferrario, “Production of angiotensin-(1-7) by human vascular endothelium,” Hypertension, vol. 19, supplement 2, pp. II56–II61, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Hermenegildo, A. Sobrino, E. Monsalve et al., “Angiotensin 1-7 mas receptor mediates nitric oxide production induced by estradiol in endothelial cells,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 66, p. S40, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  62. T. Kono, A. Taniguchi, and H. Imura, “Biological activities of angiotensin II-(1-6)-hexapeptide and angiotensin II-(1-7)-heptapeptide in man,” Life Sciences, vol. 38, no. 16, pp. 1515–1519, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Sasaki, Y. Higashi, K. Nakagawa, H. Matsuura, G. Kajiyama, and T. Oshima, “Effects of angiotensin-(1-7) on forearm circulation in normotensive subjects and patients with essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 90–94, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. A. Calò, S. Schiavo, P. A. Davis et al., “ACE2 and angiotensin 1-7 are increased in a human model of cardiovascular hyporeactivity: pathophysiological implications,” Journal of Nephrology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 472–477, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. Benjamin, J. R. Cockcroft, J. G. Collier, C. T. Dollery, J. M. Ritter, and D. J. Webb, “Local inhibition of converting enzyme and vascular responses to angiotensin and bradykinin in the human forearm,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 412, pp. 543–555, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. Von Bohlen und Halbach, T. Walther, M. Bader, and D. Albrecht, “Genetic deletion of angiotensin AT2 receptor leads to increased cell numbers in different brain structures of mice,” Regulatory Peptides, vol. 99, no. 2-3, pp. 209–216, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. B. Goulter, M. J. Goddard, J. C. Allen, and K. L. Clark, “ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart,” BMC Medicine, vol. 2, p. 19, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. Y. Li, A. M. Feldman, Y. Sun, and C. F. McTiernan, “Differential expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in the failing human heart,” Circulation, vol. 98, no. 17, pp. 1728–1734, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. G. Spinale, M. L. Coker, L. J. Heung et al., “A matrix metalloproteinase induction/activation system exists in the human left ventricular myocardium and is upregulated in heart failure,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 16, pp. 1944–1949, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. Schwartzkopff, M. Fassbach, B. Pelzer, M. Brehm, and B. E. Strauer, “Elevated serum markers of collagen degradation in patients with mild to moderate dilated cardiomyopathy,” European Journal of Heart Failure, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 439–444, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. Yamamoto, M. C. Chappell, K. B. Brosnihan, and C. M. Ferrario, “In vivo metabolism of angiotensin I by neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 19, supplement 6, pp. 692–696, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. G. F. Cleland, J. Daubert, E. Erdmann et al., “The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 15, pp. 1539–1549, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Peiró, S. Vallejo, F. Gembardt et al., “Endothelial dysfunction through genetic deletion or inhibition of the G protein-coupled receptor Mas: a new target to improve endothelial function,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2421–2425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Wang, C. Qian, A. J. M. Roks et al., “Circulating rather than cardiac angiotensin-(1-7) stimulates cardioprotection after myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 286–293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. Ebermann, F. Spillmann, M. Sidiropoulos et al., “The angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist AVE0991 is cardioprotective in diabetic rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 590, no. 1–3, pp. 276–280, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Heringer-Walther, K. Eckert, S. Schumacher et al., “Angiotensin-(1-7) stimulates hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo,” Haematologica, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 857–860, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. W. J. Petty, A. A. Miller, T. P. McCoy, P. E. Gallagher, E. A. Tallant, and F. M. Torti, “Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of angiotensin-(1-7), an endogenous antiangiogenic hormone,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 7398–7404, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. K. E. Rodgers, J. Oliver, and G. S. DiZerega, “Phase I/II dose escalation study of angiotensin 1-7 [A(1-7)] administered before and after chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 559–568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. L. Grobe, A. P. Mecca, H. Mao, and M. J. Katovich, “Chronic angiotensin-(1-7) prevents cardiac fibrosis in DOCA-salt model of hypertension,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, no. 6, pp. H2417–H2423, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. J. Ferreira, V. Shenoy, Y. Qi et al., “Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation protects against hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 287–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. Schindler, P. Bramlage, W. Kirch, and C. M. Ferrario, “Role of the vasodilator peptide angiotensin-(1-7) in cardiovascular drug therapy,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 125–137, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus