International Journal of Population Research / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Gender and Reproductive Outcomes: The Effects of a Radio Serial Drama in Northern Nigeria

Table 2

Estimates of the effect of a serial radio drama Ruwan Dare on family planning/reproductive health and gender outcomes in four states in northern Nigeria (Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, and Sokoto), 2009.

Bivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CI

RH outcomes
Knowledge
Do you know a place where you can obtain a method of family planning (FP)?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.390.96–2.00 1.17–3.21
Can people reduce their chances of getting the AIDS virus by using a condom every time they have sex?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.260.85–1.851.05–3.24
Attitude
Is using contraception against the will of Allah/God?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.250.85–1.841.10–3.36
Couples should space their children at least 2.5 to 3 years apart.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.37–3.001.63–5.19
Can becoming pregnant every year put the mother at risk?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.270.89–1.831.08–3.24
People should plan how many children they will have.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.15–2.461.47–4.68
Would you say that you approve or disapprove of couples using a family planning method to avoid getting pregnant?
 1 = approve, 0 = disapprove, DK (ref.)1.13–2.281.12–2.93
What age do you think is the most appropriate for a female to start bearing children?
 1 = 20 years+, 0 = 10–19 years (ref.)0.830.57–1.220.780.44–1.37
Would access to contraceptives encourage infidelity?
 1 = no, 0 = yes, DK = 0 (ref.)1.120.79–1.581.240.80–1.92
Intentions
Would you like to have no more children?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.510.86–2.641.200.56–2.57
Do you think you will use a contraceptive method to delay or avoid pregnancy at any time in the future?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.150.61–2.171.970.75–5.19
Behavior
Are you currently doing something or using any method of family planning to delay or avoid getting pregnant?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.56–3.601.336–4.41
In the last 3 months have you discussed the practice of family planning with your family, friends, or neighbors?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.45–2.951.23–3.26
Gender outcomes
Attitudes and behaviors related to normative beliefs and gender equality
Discussed FP with spouse in the last 3 months.
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 0.37–2.851.17–3.05
Couples should share responsibility for making decisions about family size.
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.17–2.701.10–3.87
What do you consider to be the ideal marriage age for a female?
 1 = 19 years+, 0 = 18 years and below (ref.) 1.040.71–1.501.02–2.93
A woman’s value is judged by marriage before her first menses and by the number of children she has.
 1 = disagree, 0 = agree (ref.) 0.47–0.960.56–1.42
A man is never sterile but a woman can be.
 1 = disagree, 0 = agree (ref.) 0.760.53–1.081.010.63–1.63
Girls should be encouraged to continue their education to higher levels.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.310.87–1.981.250.64–2.41
Do you think that your husband/partner approves or disapproves of couples using a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy?
 1 = approve, 0 = disapprove, DK (ref.)1.240.73–2.081.710.81–3.60
Who had the final say in the decision that you would get married to or live with your (first) husband/partner?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)0.780.50–1.211.560.85–2.86
Women should not be allowed to express their opinion about important family matters.
 1 = disagree, 0 = agree (ref.) 0.80.56–1.141.150.70–1.92
A woman should be free to ask her husband to use a condom.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.080.76–1.531.300.76–2.23
Attitudes related to economic empowerment
Who in your family usually has the final say on making large household purchases?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)0.820.48–1.400.860.46–1.61
Who mainly decides how the money you earn will be used?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)0.950.50–1.801.270.57–2.82
Attitudes related to domestic violence
Do you think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has a sexually transmitted infection?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 2.49–7.161.41–6.79
Do you think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has sex with women other than his wives?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 2.20–5.831.46–5.87
Do you think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she is tired or not in the mood?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.250.84–1.841.01–3.06
Is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife if she goes out without telling him?
 1 = no, 0 = yes, DK (ref.) 0.890.52–1.530.790.39–1.62

Differences between surveys and between listeners and nonlisteners are significant at , , .
ameans the introduction of the correlates, state, education, and ethnicity turned the effect of drama exposure significant; bmeans the introduction of the correlate, education turned the effect of drama exposure significant; cmeans the introduction of the correlate, state turned the effect of drama exposure significant; dmeans the introduction of the correlate, current marital status turned the effect of drama exposure significant; emeans the introduction of the correlate, current marital status turned the effect of drama exposure nonsignificant; fmeans the introduction of the correlate, ethnicity turned the effect of drama exposure significant.