International Journal of Population Research / 2014 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Gender and Reproductive Outcomes: The Effects of a Radio Serial Drama in Northern Nigeria

Table 5

Estimates of the relative effects of a serial radio drama “Ruwan Dare” and gender on reproductive outcomes in four states in northern Nigeria (Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, and Sokoto), 2009.

Relative drama and gender effects Approve or disapprove of couples using FP Ideal age for childbearing is 20 or older Access to contraception would encourage infidelity Know a place to obtain a FP method
Adjusted odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CI

Normative beliefs model
Listened to Ruwan Dare (exposure).
1 = regular listener, 0 = nonlistener (ref.)0.72–2.380.650.34–1.241.020.64–1.621.820.63–5.29
Discussed FP with spouse in the last 3 months.
 1 = yes, 0 = no (ref.)5.94–22.391.53–8.561.80–4.461.41–11.00
Do you think that your husband/partner approves or disapproves of couples using a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy?
 1 = approve, 0 = disapprove, DK (ref.)nananananana4.451.66–11.93
What do you consider to be the ideal marriage age for a female?
 1 = 19 years+, 0 = 18 years and below (ref.) nananananananana
Girls should be encouraged to continue their education to higher levels.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.48–10.211.48–9.20nana1.35–16.20
Couples should share responsibility for making decisions about family size.
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.40–8.64nananananana
A woman should be free to ask her husband to use a condom.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 2.22–8.95nana1.29–3.44nana
Women should not be allowed to express their opinion about important family matters.
 1 = disagree, 0 = agree, DK (ref.)nana1.69–6.271.24–3.61nana
Economic empowerment model
Listened to Ruwan Dare (exposure).
 1 = regular listener, 0 = nonlistener (ref.)1.380.73–2.620.06–0.831.330.54–3.272.240.74–6.83
Discussed FP with spouse in the last 3 months.
 1 = yes, 0 = no (ref.)6.53–27.39nana1.24–5.961.58–13.73
Do you think that your husband/partner approves or disapproves of couples using a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy?
 1 = approve, 0 = disapprove, DK (ref.)nananananana1.46–11.15
Girls should be encouraged to continue their education to higher levels.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.96–15.783.410.21–55.42nana1.40–17.38
Children should be treated equally regardless of their sex.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree, DK (ref.)nananananananana
Couples should share responsibility for making decisions about family size.
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.24–8.303.180.57–17.64nananana
A woman should be free to ask her husband to use a condom.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 2.08–8.91nananananana
Who in your family usually has the final say on making large household purchases?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)nana1.37–20.730.02–0.243.270.70–15.36
Who mainly decides how the money you earn will be used?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)2.760.95–7.992.39–15.59nana
Domestic violence model
Listened to Ruwan Dare (exposure).
 1 = regular listener, 0 = nonlistener (ref.)1.260.68–2.330.06–1.021.250.50–3.142.140.71–6.46
Discussed FP with spouse in the last 3 months.
 1 = yes, 0 = no (ref.)6.49–26.76nana1.14–5.861.39–11.37
Do you think that your husband/partner approves or disapproves of couples using a contraceptive method to avoid pregnancy?
 1 = approve, 0 = disapprove, DK (ref.)nananananana1.46–10.90
Girls should be encouraged to continue their education to higher levels.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 1.42–10.131.410.08–23.93nana1.45–18.57
Children should be treated equally regardless of their sex.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree, DK (ref.)nananananananana
Couples should share responsibility for making decisions about family size.
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) 1.25–8.022.930.42–20.29nananana
A woman should be free to ask her husband to use a condom.
 1 = agree, 0 = disagree (ref.) 2.43–10.29nananananana
Who in your family usually has the final say on making large household purchases?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)nana1.87–45.110.02–0.21nana
Who mainly decides how the money you earn will be used?
 1 = jointly, 0 = spouse, respondent, others (ref.)nana1.70.52–5.532.84–22.30nana
Do you think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has a sexually transmitted infection?
 1 = yes, 0 = no, DK (ref.) nananana2.020.69–5.90nana
Is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife if she goes out without telling him?
 1 = no, 0 = yes, DK (ref.) 0.16–0.992.20–36.72nana0.580.15–2.23
Is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife if she argues with him?
 1 = no, 0 = yes, DK (ref.) nananananananana

Differences between surveys and between listeners and nonlisteners are significant at , , .
na means coefficient was removed from the model because it was statistically nonsignificant.
aThe effect of drama exposure, net of the controls was signifcant but was rendered nonsignifcant after the measure for spousal discussion of FP was added in the model.
bThe effect of drama exposure, net of the controls was signifcant but was rendered nonsignifcant after the measure for use of earnings was added in the model.