International Journal of Population Research / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Gender Socialization: Differences between Male and Female Youth in India and Associations with Mental Health

Table 3

Poisson regression model for gender socialization and mental health problems among females and males (“Youth in India: Situation and Needs Study,” 2006–08 ( )).

IndicatorsFemales ( )Males ( )
(se) (se)

Age 0.02(0.01)**1.020.03(0.01)***1.03
Residence (ref. = rural)
 Urban−0.22(0.03)***0.81−0.20(0.04)***0.82
Region (ref. = south)
  West0.50(0.04)***1.650.37(0.05)***1.45
  North0.33(0.04)***1.390.26(0.05)***1.30
Religion (ref. = Hindu)
  Muslim−0.01(0.04)0.990.05(0.06)1.05
  Other−0.01(0.05)0.990.07(0.07)1.07
Caste (ref. = general caste)
  Scheduled castes0.09(0.04)1.090.05(0.06)1.05
  Scheduled tribe0.08(0.05)1.080.18(0.06)**1.19
  Other backward castes−0.01(0.03)0.990.08(0.05)1.08
  Not known0.06(0.13)1.060.25(0.21)1.28
Marital status (ref. = single/never married)
  Married, living with spouse−0.03(0.04)0.97−0.19(0.06)**0.83
  Married, not living with spouse −0.02(0.07)0.980.23(0.16)1.26
  Married, no gauna 0.00(0.09)1.00−0.38(0.15)**0.68
Work status (ref. = paid only)
  Unpaid only0.00(0.05)1.00−0.08(0.07)0.92
  Both paid and unpaid−0.11(0.06)0.900.19(0.07)**1.20
  Neither paid nor unpaid−0.05(0.03)0.950.03(0.05)1.04
Years of schooling (ref. = >12 years)
 10–12 years0.05(0.03) 1.05−0.10(0.05)0.90
 5–9 years−0.09(0.05)0.91−0.15(0.06)0.86
 <5 years−0.12(0.07)0.89−0.10 (0.08)0.90
Family type (ref. = nuclear)
 Nonnuclear0.02(0.03)1.020.08(0.03) 1.08
Wealth quintile (ref. = Q5, wealthiest)
  Quartile 4−0.08(0.04) 0.920.12(0.05) 1.13
  Quartile 3−0.08(0.04)0.920.16(0.06)**1.17
  Quartile 2−0.06(0.05)0.940.18(0.06)**1.19
  Quartile 1 (poorest)−0.11(0.05) 0.900.26(0.07)***1.30
Families discriminated between sons and daughters in education, freedom to roam, and household work (ref. = no gender-discrimination in all 3 matters)
  Gender-discrimination in 1 matter 0.30(0.04)***1.35−0.12(0.05) 0.89
  Gender-discrimination in 2 matters 0.31(0.04)***1.36−0.28(0.05)***0.76
  Gender-discrimination in all 3 matters 0.42(0.04)***1.52−0.24(0.05)***0.79
Youth did household chores inside home (ref. = never)
 Performed housework 0.01(0.11)1.010.15(0.04)***1.16
Youth did household chores outside home (ref. = neither shopped nor did other outside chores)
  Either shopped or did other outside chores 0.10(0.03)**1.11−0.15(0.09)0.86
  Both shopped and did other outside chores 0.14(0.04)***1.15−0.31(0.08)***0.73
Ever witnessed violence between parents (ref. = no)
  Yes 0.33(0.03)***1.39 0.25(0.04)***1.28
  Not asked—either/both parents deceased 0.19(0.04)***1.20 0.07(0.05)1.07
Ever experienced parental violence after age 12 (ref. = no)
  Yes 0.24(0.03)***1.27 0.12(0.03)**1.12
  Do not remember0.30(0.11)**1.35−0.13(0.26)0.88
Able to make independent decision—choosing friends, spending money, buying clothes, and so on (ref. = yes, all 3)
  Yes, 2 of 3 items0.05(0.04)1.050.04(0.04)1.04
  Yes, 1 of 3 items0.13(0.04)***1.140.02(0.05)1.02
  Unable to make independent decision on any item 0.37 (0.05)***1.45 0.26 (0.10) 1.29
Able to often express/confront (ref. = express and confront)
  Either express or confront 0.06(0.04)1.06 0.37(0.05)***1.44
  Neither express nor confront 0.14(0.03)***1.15 0.22(0.04)***1.25
Unescorted mobility inside V/N (ref. = yes, all 3 places)
  Yes, only to 2 places−0.06(0.04)0.94 0.02(0.06)1.02
  Yes, only to 1 place 0.29(0.05)***1.34 0.22(0.08)**1.25
  No, cannot go to any place 0.24(0.04)***1.27 0.55(0.09)***1.73
Unescorted mobility outside V/N (ref. = Yes, all 3 places)
  Yes, only to 2 places 0.18(0.10)1.20 0.21(0.06)***1.23
  Yes, only to 1 place 0.08(0.09)1.08 0.09(0.06)1.09
  No, cannot go to any place−0.02(0.09)0.98 0.03(0.07)1.03
Access to money (ref. = owns and operates account)
  Owns but does not operate account−0.04(0.08)0.96 0.28(0.11)1.32
  Does not own an account−0.02(0.06)0.980.16(0.06)**1.17
Egalitarian gender role attitudes (ref. = 6 or more items)
  Gender-equitable on 5 items 0.09(0.04) 1.09 0.16(0.07)1.18
  Gender-equitable on 4 items 0.18(0.04)***1.20 0.29(0.07)***1.34
  Gender-equitable on 3 items 0.24(0.04)***1.27 0.37(0.07)***1.44
  Gender-equitable on 0–2 items 0.34(0.05)***1.41 0.38(0.07)***1.46

Notes: ** ; *** ; V/N: village/neighborhood.

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