Figure 3: Comparative proteomes of H. pylori related to gastric diseases. (a) Bacterial virulence factor, host factor, and environmental factor might influence the outcome of H. pylori infection, disrupting the balance between damaging factor and defense factor. (b) Genotyping of H. pylori virulence gene according to isolates disease, CSG denotes H. pylori isolated from the patients with chronic superficial gastritis and CAG from patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. Though these virulence factors can affect the disease pathogenesis, they were not discriminative in differential diagnosis as biomarker. (c) Significantly increased spot of HSP27 were noted in H. pylori isolated from gastric cancer compared to benign gastric ulcer (lower panel). Using the sera obtained from the patient with gastric cancer, significant immunoblotting was noted in patients with gastric cancer, imposing the significance as biomarker for carcinogenesis.