Table of Contents
International Journal of Proteomics
Volume 2012, Article ID 824024, 8 pages
Research Article

Protein Markers for the Differential Diagnosis of Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease

1Memory Disorders Research Group Section 6702, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, 701 85 Örebro, Sweden
3Department of Laboratory Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital, 701 85 Örebro, Sweden
4Department of Incretin Biology, Novo Nordisk, Niels Steensens vej 1, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark

Received 12 January 2012; Revised 11 March 2012; Accepted 3 April 2012

Academic Editor: John G. Marshall

Copyright © 2012 A. H. Simonsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia found in all human populations worldwide, while vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia. New biomarkers for early and specific diagnosis of AD and VaD are needed to achieve greater insight into changes occurring in the brain and direct therapeutic strategies. The objective of this explorative study was to discover candidate protein biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between VaD and AD. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) TOF-MS was used to differentially profile proteins and peptides in CSF samples from 28 AD patients and 21 patients with VaD. A combination of univariate (Kruskal-Wallis) and multivariate (independent component analysis) statistical approaches produced a list of 27 proteins and peptides that could differentiate between VaD and AD. These markers represent various physiological processes, such as protein degradation (ubiquitin), protease inhibition (cystatin C and alpha-1-antichymoptrypsin), and inflammation (C3a and C4a) that are known to be represented in neurodegenerative diseases.