Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Point Defects and Defect Clusters in Irradiated Graphite
A long dislocation dipole generated from 9 vacancies (light spots). The dislocation dipole can grow by knock-on at the ends of dislocation dipole denoted by symbols in (b). Neighboring eightfold and sixfold rings at the left-hand side end of the dislocation dipole in (b) transforms to neighboring sevenfold and fivefold rings in (c) after a knock-on of an atom denoted by a circle. The neighboring sevenfold and fivefold rings can grow into the neighboring eightfold and sixfold rings as shown at the right-hand side area by knocking-on the atom denoted by a triangle. The contraction in the basal plane along the directions denoted by the broken lines in (a) occurs.