Table of Contents
International Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2012, Article ID 463731, 7 pages
Research Article

Fiber Optic Coupled Raman Based Detection of Hazardous Liquids Concealed in Commercial Products

1ALERT-DHS Center of Excellence, Center for Chemical Sensors Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagüez, PR 00681-9000, USA
2U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, DC 20228, Boston, USA
3Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5000, USA

Received 15 July 2011; Revised 1 October 2011; Accepted 7 October 2011

Academic Editor: Maher S. Amer

Copyright © 2012 Michael L. Ramírez-Cedeño et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Raman spectroscopy has been widely proposed as a technique to nondestructively and noninvasively interrogate the contents of glass and plastic bottles. In this work, Raman spectroscopy is used in a concealed threat scenario where hazardous liquids have been intentionally mixed with common consumer products to mask its appearance or spectra. The hazardous liquids under consideration included the chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant triethyl phosphate (TEP), hydrogen peroxide, and acetone as representative of toxic industrial compounds (TICs). Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy (FOCRS) and partial least squares (PLS) algorithm analysis were used to quantify hydrogen peroxide in whiskey, acetone in perfume, and TEP in colored beverages. Spectral data was used to evaluate if the hazardous liquids can be successfully concealed in consumer products. Results demonstrated that FOC-RS systems were able to discriminate between nonhazardous consumer products and mixtures with hazardous materials at concentrations lower than 5%.