Table of Contents
International Journal of Spectroscopy
Volume 2012, Article ID 463731, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/463731
Research Article

Fiber Optic Coupled Raman Based Detection of Hazardous Liquids Concealed in Commercial Products

1ALERT-DHS Center of Excellence, Center for Chemical Sensors Development, Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9000, Mayagüez, PR 00681-9000, USA
2U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Washington, DC 20228, Boston, USA
3Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5000, USA

Received 15 July 2011; Revised 1 October 2011; Accepted 7 October 2011

Academic Editor: Maher S. Amer

Copyright © 2012 Michael L. Ramírez-Cedeño et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Police: Plot to blow up aircraft foiled. http://www.cnn.com/. Posted August 10, 2006.
  2. Y. Sun and K. Y. Ong, Detection Technologies for Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Vapors, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005.
  3. T. C. Marrs, R. Maynard, and F. Sidell, Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, John Wiley & Sons, London, UK, 1996.
  4. National Research Council, Final Report on Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
  5. S. Farquharson, A. Gift, P. Maksymiuk, and F. Inscore, “Surface-enhanced raman spectra of VX and its hydrolysis products,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 654–660, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. L. McNesby, J. E. Wolfe, J. B. Morris, and R. A. Pesce-Rodriguez, “Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of some energetic materials and propellant formulations,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 75–87, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. F. Pearman and A. W. Fountain, “Classification of chemical and biological warfare agent simulants by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistical techniques,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 356–365, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. R. Lewis, N. W. Daniel Jr, N. C. Chaffin, P. R. Griffiths, and M. W. Tungol, “Raman spectroscopic studies of explosive materials: towards a fieldable explosives detector,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1985–2000, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Donahue, H. Huang, C. Brouillette, W. Smith, and S. Farquharson, “Detecting explosives by portable Raman analyzers: a comparison of 785, 976, 1064, and 1550 nm (Retina-Safe) laser excitation,” Spectroscopy, pp. 24–28, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. Christesen, B. Maciver, L. Procell, D. Sorrick, M. Carrabba, and J. Bello, “Nonintrusive analysis of chemical agent identification sets using a portable fiber-optic Raman spectrometer,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 850–855, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. D. Harvey, M. E. Vucelick, R. N. Lee, and B. W. Wright, “Blind field test evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a forensic tool,” Forensic Science International, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 12–21, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Eliasson, N. A. Macleod, and P. Matousek, “Noninvasive detection of concealed liquid explosives using Raman spectroscopy,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 79, no. 21, pp. 8185–8189, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Eliasson, N. A. Macleod, and P. Matousek, “Non-invasive detection of powders concealed within diffusely scattering plastic containers,” Vibrational Spectroscopy, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 8–11, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Alvarez-Rivera, Fiber optic coupled Raman spectroscopy of liquid explosives mixtures, M.S. Dissertation, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 2002.
  15. C. Frausto-Reyesa, C. Medina-Gutierrez, R. Sato-Berrub, and L. R. Sahaguna, “Qualitative study of ethanol content in tequilas by Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A, vol. 61, no. 11-12, pp. 2657–2662, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. D. Driskell, Y. Zhu, C. D. Kirkwood, Y. Zhao, R. A. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of rotavirus molecular signatures using surface enhanced raman spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 4, Article ID 10.1371/journal.pone.0010222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Sikirzhytski, K. Virkler, and I. K. Lednev, “Discriminant analysis of Raman spectra for body fluid identification for forensic purposes,” Sensors, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2869–2884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. O. Georgeand and D. Steele, Computing Applications in Molecular Spectroscopy, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 1995.
  19. O. Svensson, M. Josefson, and F. W. Langkilde, “Reaction monitoring using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 49–66, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. K. Plyler, “Infrared spectra of methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol,” Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 281–286, 1952. View at Google Scholar
  21. N. A. Milas and A. Golubović, “Studies in organic peroxides. XXVI. Organic peroxides derived from acetone and hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 81, no. 24, pp. 6461–6462, 1959. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Jensen, P. M. Mortensen, R. Trane, P. Harris, and R. W. Berg, “Reaction kinetics of acetone peroxide formation and structure investigations using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 92–97, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. Dellepiane and J. Overend, “Vibrational spectra and assignment of acetone, ααα acetone-d3 and acetone-d6,” Spectrochimica Acta, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 593–614, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Oxley, J. Smith, J. Brady et al., “Raman and infrared fingerprint spectroscopy of peroxide-based explosives,” Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 906–915, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Pacheco-Londoño, O. M. Primera, M. Ramírez, O. Ruiz, and S. Hernandez-Rivera, “Review of the various analytical techniques and algorithms for detection and quantification of TATP,” in Proceedings of the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE '05), E. M. Carapezza, Ed., vol. 5778, pp. 317–326, Sensors, and C3I Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense IV, Bellingham, Wash, USA, month year.
  26. K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, “Raman spectra and rotational isomerism of dimethylphosphorochloridate and trimethyl phosphate,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 212, pp. 157–168, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Thomsen, D. Schatzlein, and D. Mercuro, “Limits of detection in spectroscopy,” Spectroscopy, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 112–114, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus