Table of Contents
International Journal of Tissue Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 343182, 6 pages
Research Article

90° Peel off Tests of Tissue Engineered Osteochondral Constructs: A New Method to Determine the Osteochondral Integration

1Center of Biomechanics & Calorimetry Basel, University of Basel, Biozentrum/Pharmazentrum, Klingelbergstrasse 50-70, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
2University Hospital Basel, Institute for Surgical Research and Hospital Management, Tissue Engineering Group, ZLF, Hebelstrasse 20, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
3Gemeinschaftspraxis Schützenmatt, Schützenmattstrasse 41, 4051 Basel, Switzerland

Received 31 October 2013; Revised 8 February 2014; Accepted 16 March 2014; Published 31 March 2014

Academic Editor: Ming Hao Zheng

Copyright © 2014 Vivienne Bürgin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


One promising treatment of localized osteochondral defects in the knee joint may be the implantation of in vitro tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. A crucial aspect of this kind of osteochondral construct is the bonding between the bone-scaffold and scaffold-based chondral layer. Here, a 90° peel off test is proposed as an appropriate method to measure the integration of cartilage to bone in osteochondral constructs for different primary methods of bonding the cartilage scaffold to the bone scaffold, with and without seeded chondroblasts. The method was developed and then tested on tissue-engineered constructs. The force/displacement data obtained allow determination of both the maximum force and the total energy required to separate the two layers. The tests showed good reproducibility and good discrimination between measurements as a function of seeding times. Average maximum peel-off forces varied between 10 mN for fibrin glue only to 575 mN for constructs with cells after four weeks of incubation. Linear regression of the area under the curve (AUC) as a function of maximum force shows a high correlation between the two parameters with R2 = 0.97. The main limitation of the test is that the data provide only a modest ability to decide how uniform the bond is over the area between the two layers.