Table of Contents
International Journal of Tissue Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 621529, 5 pages
Research Article

Alignment of Skeletal Muscle Cells Cultured in Collagen Gel by Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation

1Shiromoto Clinic, 3-5-4 Nishiki, Naka Ward, Nagoya, Aichi 460-0003, Japan
2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku Ward, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Hospital Organization, Tokyo Medical Center, 2-5-1 Higashigaoka, Meguro Ward, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan

Received 31 October 2013; Revised 20 January 2014; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 10 March 2014

Academic Editor: Raymund E. Horch

Copyright © 2014 Takara Tanaka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


For in vitro tissue engineering of skeletal muscle, alignment and fusion of the cultured skeletal muscle cells are required. Although the successful alignment of skeletal muscle cells cultured in collagen gel has been reported using a mechanical force, other means of aligning cultured skeletal muscle cells have not been described. However, skeletal muscle cells cultured in a two-dimensional dish have been reported to align in a uniform direction when electrically stimulated. The purpose of this study is to determine if skeletal muscle cells cultured three-dimensionally in collagen gels can be aligned by an electrical load. By adding direct current to cells of the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line cultured in collagen gel, it was possible to align C2C12 cells in a similar direction. However, the ratio of alignment was better when mechanical force was used as the means of alignment. Thus for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle cells, electrical stimulation may be useful as a supplementary method.