Table of Contents
International Journal of Vehicular Technology
Volume 2016, Article ID 2306818, 10 pages
Research Article

Experimental Test of Artificial Potential Field-Based Automobiles Automated Perpendicular Parking

1Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada
3School of Electric and Electronic Engineering (EEE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Received 7 June 2016; Accepted 18 September 2016

Academic Editor: Abdelaziz Bensrhair

Copyright © 2016 Yiqun Dong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Automobiles automated perpendicular parking using Artificial Potential Field (APF) is discussed in this paper. The Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) used for carrying out experiments is introduced first; UGV configuration, kinematics, and motion controller are included. Based on discretized form of the parking space, the APF is generated. Holonomic path for the vehicle parking is found first; path modification to satisfy minimum turning-radius constraint is performed based on Reeds-Shepp curve connections. Optimization efforts are included to remove extra maneuvers and to reduce length of the path. Afterwards waypoints are generated as reference for the vehicle to track. Perpendicular parking tests with several different start configurations are demonstrated; based on the test results the automated parking framework proposed in this paper is considered to be effective.