Table 2: Crop hosts of the giant honeybee in the semiarid environment of Northwest India.

Crop hostFlowering timeSource (P, N)p/nt

(1) Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)Sep-OctP, N, 2p3
(2) Toria (Brassica campestris L. var. toria)Oct-NovP, N, 2p3
(3) Edible leafy mustard (Brassica juncea Czern. & Coss)Dec–FebP, N, 1p3
(4) Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. D.)Dec–FebP, N, 2p3
(5) Rape (Brassica napus L.)Dec–FebP, N, 2p3
(6) Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis)Dec–FebP, N, 2p3
(7) Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)Dec–FebP, N, 2p3
(8) Turnip (Brassica rapa L.)Dec–FebP, N, 2p3
(9) Salad rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.)Dec–MarP, N, 2p3
(10) Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.)Dec–FebP, N, 1p3
(11) Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)Feb-MarP, 2p3
(12) Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)Feb-MarP, N, 2p4
(13) Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.)MarchP, N, 2p3
(14) Kinnow (Citrus nobilis × Citrus deliciosa)MarchP, N, 2p3
(15) Peach (Prunus persica) (L.) StokesMarchP, N, 2p3
(16) Onion (Allium cepa L.)Mar-AprP, N, 2p3
(17) Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus)Mar-AprP, N, 2p4
(18) Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.)Mar–MayP, N, 2p3
(19) Berseem/clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.)Mar–MayP, N, 2p3
(20) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)Mar–OctP, N, 2nt 3
(21) Guava (Psidium guajava  L.)Apr-MayP, N, 2p3
(22) Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(23) Ribbed gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(24) Bath sponge (Luffa cylindrica L.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(25) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(26) Apple gourd (Praecitrullus fistulosus (Stocks) Pangalo)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(27) Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(28) Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.))Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(29) Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(30) Kheera (Cucumis sativus L.)Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(31) Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) Mar–NovP, N, 2p4
(32) Petha (Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn) Mar–NovP, N, 2p4

P = pollen source; N = nectar source; 1: major crop of the region; 2: minor crop of the region; p: foragers acted as pollinators, nt: foragers acted as nectar thieves; 3: frequent visitor; 4: occasional visitor.