Table of Contents
Influenza Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 847505, 10 pages
Research Article

Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses: Cocirculation of Avian Influenza Viruses with Allele A and B Nonstructural Gene in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Ducks Wintering in Japan

1Laboratory of Zoonoses, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, Towada 034-8628, Japan
2Animal Health Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka 1341, Bangladesh
3Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-0057, Japan
4Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University 52900, Ramat Gan, Israel

Received 21 September 2012; Revised 2 December 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editor: Zichria Zakay-Rones

Copyright © 2012 Alam Jahangir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The pandemic influenza virus strains of 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), 1968 (H3N2), and 2009 (H1N1) have genes related to avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The nonstructural (NS) gene of AIVs plays a significant role in host-viral interaction. However, little is known about the degree of diversity of this gene in Northern pintail (Anas acuta) ducks wintering in Japan. This study describes characteristics of pintail-originated H1N1, H1N2, H1N3, H5N2, H5N3, H5N9, and H7N7 viruses. Most of the viruses were revealed to be avian strains and not related to pandemic and seasonal flu strains. Nevertheless, the NP genes of 62.5% (5/8) viruses were found closely related to a A/swine/Korea/C12/08, indicating exchange of genetic material and ongoing mammalian-linked evolution of AIVs. Besides, all the viruses, except Aomori/422/07 H1N1, contain PSIQSR*GLF motif usually found in avian, porcine, and human H1 strains. The Aomori/422/07 H1N1 has a PSVQSR*GLF motif identical to a North American strain. This findings linked to an important intercontinental, Asian-American biogeographical interface. Phylogenetically all the viruses were clustered in Eurasian lineage. Cocirculation of allele A and B (NS gene) viruses was evident in the study implying the existence of a wide reservoir of influenza A viruses in pintail wintering in Japan.